|Subject Code and Title||STAT6001: Public Health Informatics|
|Assessment||Assessment 1: Report – Summarising Public Health Informatics (including evaluation)|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:|
|Total Marks||100 marks|
In this assessment, you will follow two parts
Follow three public health-related Twitter accounts and summarise what you have learned from following these feeds for 5 weeks (from Week 1 to week 5 of the trimester). Critique on how Twitter as a social media tool, can be utilised for informed public health informatics field. Note that you will need to create a Twitter account. You may pick up accounts from the following list (1500 words)
Telemedicine in Australia (1000 words)
Summarise the barriers to the uptake of telemedicine in Australia based on articles provided in the learning resources and wider literature (last 5 years). Classify them into ICT issues and management issues and evaluate current methods.
In your opinion, what are the key barriers and how can these be addressed? Provide suggestions and practical recommendations based on evidence.
STAT6001: PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATICS
ASSESSMENT 1: REPORT –SUMMARISING PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATICS
Twitter is one of the social media platforms, where more than 500 million people in worldwide basis publish varieties of ideas and then discuss a diversified topic that also includes public health information and health condition (McIver et al. 2015). Various health-related organisations also publish their ideas by sharing short-text through their profile that contains public health-related information (Nambisan et al. 2015). They mainly share this information for informing the public about various epidemics, health issues or the factors that create different health issues. Moreover, twitter data can be useful for monitoring diseases, understanding the public reaction, identifying lifestyle or predicting the lifestyle.
During observing @AUMentalHealth, it has been encountered that it is the twitter account of Mental Health Aust. The organisation is mainly associated to offer different information regarding mental health so that people can get information about the consequences of mental health, different mental issues and the process of treating people. It has been observed that the twitter account of mental health Aust has last tweeted on March 12. In the second week of March, the organisation has not only offered various health-related informatics but they have also shared their success stories, they have wished all the women in the women’s day, they have demonstrated the importance of gender equality on the mentally healthier society (Twitter, 2020a). Along with that, they have also shown the concern towards the present issues COVID19. Therefore, from this week, I have learned that a twitter account of an organisation not only helps them in sharing core information for which their organisation have been developed but a twitter account is also helpful in sharing diversified information. With the help of this social media account, an organisation shares diversified information os that they can be recognised by diversified people (Rocheleau et al. 2015).
From the first week of March, I have learned that showing concern towards ten present issues always helps people in taking preventive steps. As @AUMentalHealth offers health-related information, therefore, it is necessary for them in showing concern towards the present health issues (COVID19). They have requested people to protect them with hand sanitizer and masks. Moreover, the organisation has also provided some mental health-related information because it is one of the twitter accounts that offer mental health issues (Alnemer et al. 2015). This week has helped me in understanding the issues faced by mentally disabled people when they go to find work. Moreover, they have also provided information about a patient with a distorted mental health condition. In the week, the organisation has promoted a twitter account who prevents suicide of other people (Twitter, 2020a). In the last week of February, the organisation has tweeted about the fellowship program of national mental health commission, promoted another twitter account @ReachOut_AUS and @MHANews.
Therefore, this week has helped me in learning the fact that twitter account of an organisation can be used to promote the twitter account of another organisation. Therefore, it can be said that affiliated marketing is one of the common facts in Twitter account. In the third week of February, the organisation has provided news from other twitter accounts and then they have provided different intimation about the wellbeing of mental health (Twitter, 2020a). In the second week of February, the twitter account has offered information about the people who have experienced suicidal thinking because it is one of the mental health issues. Moreover, they have also provided information about the mental patient who has shown greater achievement. From this facts, it can be said that it is the duty of the twitter account of a mental health organisation in offering information about the achievement of the patient so that it can motivate the other patient in securing good health.
Twitter account of a health-related organisation can be used for monitoring diseases, identifying the reaction of the public regarding health issues or innovation, providing information to the customers regarding emergency and outbreak and predicting health issues. @telemedicine_Jn is the twitter account of telemedicine journal that offers an innovative solution for taking care of patients, managing records, reviewing products and offering industry-related news. The journal provides a better overview of the telehealth and the importance of this technology on healthcare. In the third week of March, the organisation has provided a better overview of the importance of telehealth to deal with the children with depression, suicidal tendency and anxiety (Twitter, 2020b). They have also provided information about the importance of automated text message for facilitating self-monitoring, the importance of telemedicine on offering neonatal services. It can be said from the microblogging that twitter not only helps the individuals in sharing personal opinions, mementoes and news so that it can help promote telemedicine’s but it also raising awareness among people (Jones et al. 2016). Telemedicine has become one of the advanced technologies that are helpful for the modern generation in developing advanced technology (Twitter, 2020b). Therefore, for promoting this advanced technology, using twitter is much fair because twitter is accessed by millions of people from different geographical location. Therefore, using twitter can be helpful for people across the different geographical location in improving health facilities.
By offering this information, the journal not only helps the patients in understanding advanced healthcare facilities but it is also helpful for doctors in identifying different healthcare solutions. The information that is present in the telemedicine journal can also be helpful for the government in taking different necessary steps to implement telemedicine in various healthcare organisation so that it can be helpful for the government in improving the healthcare facilities in the rural areas (McClellan et al. 2017). The action of the journal is also helpful in identifying the reaction of the public about the telehealth and telemedicine. Twitter can be used in informing the public about the emergency (Twitter, 2020b). This fact can be understood from the second week of March where the journal has provided a brief overview of the coronavirus. The journal has not published any information in the first week of March and the last two weeks of February. Therefore, from the above information, it can be said that telemedicine journals mainly offers information only then when they get any innovative information about the telemedicine. They do not offer frequent information because offering frequent information sometimes present the misinformation to the target audiences (Dredze, Osborne & Kambadur, 2016). This fact can create huge negative impacts on the target recipient of the information.
Twitter is also helpful in offering a brief overview of the present emergency in the world (Berry et al. 2017). @equitylist is the twitter account of equity and human development, public health. They are associated with offering healthcare-related information to the people. Presently, Twitter is using as a microblog for informing people about the emergency. In the present time, COVID19 has attacked people in all over the world. Therefore, equity and health mainly tweet about the scenario of the emergency so that people can be aware of and protect them from the current healthcare issues. In this present time that is the third week of March, @equitylist is associated to offer the condition of different countries due to VCOVID19 virus that mainly includes the number of deaths in a different country, the process to identify the virus in the human body and the investments made by the different country to protect people from coronavirus (Twitter, 2020c). Along with that, the third week of March also provides a brief overview and analysis of the global policy so that the people can understand the activity that they should do. Along with that, the third week of March also provides a brief overview of the guidelines for people during the present situation. Therefore, it can be said that Twitter can also be used for making people aware about their do’s activity and don’ts activity. The second week of March provides statistical set of data about the number of death caused by corona in a different country. Therefore, it can be said from the above description that twitter have also the utilisation as the medium by which people can know various statistical information about the pandemic.
Additionally, the second week also provides an overview of the utilisation of telemedicine and mental healthcare during COVID19 (Twitter, 2020c). The second week also provides an overview of different advanced healthcare solutions. On the other hand, the first week of March offers varieties of information about the innovation, digital health along with the information about the coronavirus. Therefore, it can be said that twitter can be used to inform people about various innovation (Grover, Kar & Davies, 2018). The last week of February and the third week of February offer a good overview of the condition of corona in a different country (Twitter, 2020c). Along with that, these two weeks offer a better overview of the information provided by WHO about different epidemic. Moreover, these two weeks also offers healthcare information about different countries. Additionally, these two weeks also offers information about the diseases and the diseases cause virus and bacteria so that they can aware people about that.
According to Albahri et al. (2018), telemedicine is the practice to take care of patients remotely when the patients and the providers are not physically present. Modern technologies are helpful for the patients in getting consultation from the doctors with the help of HIPAA compliant tool of video conferencing. Therefore, telemedicine can be referred to as the remote delivery of healthcare services. The primary benefits of telemedicine are increasing the access to healthcare services in the rural area where the advanced healthcare services are not easily available (Combi, Pozzani, & Pozzi, 2015). Though telemedicine offers a range of benefits but uptake of telemedicine creates some barriers.
For implementing the telemedicine in Australia, the main barrier is it requires advanced equipment skill which might not be present among every healthcare provider (Emery, 2015). To uptake the telemedicine, it is important in using new health equipment or it is important in gaining the learning regrading how existing equipment can be used in newer ways. Telemedicine is one of the hybrid systems that mainly involves the ICT domain as well as the medical domain. for performing telemedicine, a doctor requires a better knowledge about both the domain. Therefore, a serious lack of technical person who has better knowledge about ICT can create difficulties in performing the day-to-day business of telemedicine (Hassibian & Hassibian, 2016). Therefore, a lack of technical personnel in the field of telemedicine in Australia can create difficulties for the system. During handling the ICT network as well as a computer system, different technical problems might arise. For fixing this problem and facilitating the smooth functioning of the telemedicine system, it is important in involving physicians who have an advanced level of ICT related knowledge.
There are not any standardisations as well as specificity to practice the telemedicine which sometimes creates the accreditation related issues. The accreditation issues create fear among healthcare providers and users. Absence of the regulatory bodies, as well as accreditation councils, leaves the telemedicine in the isolation. Along with that, there is a lack of uniformity in the regulation of telemedicine in Australia (Emery, 2015). Due to the absence of the definite regulatory guidelines and policy, physicians have the fear as well as apprehension in practising the telemedicine. No Australian territory or state yet has fully implemented policy and accreditation regarding telehealth system (Health, 2020). Therefore, a significant barrier to uptake telemedicine is the legal-medico uncertainties that create difficulties in implementing telemedicine system.
Lack of any kind of formal organisational structure for delivering the telemedicine service is one of the biggest barriers in developing the services regarding the telemedicine in Australia. As telemedicine is belonging from a hybrid discipline, therefore, telemedicine requires the collaboration with every possible stakeholder in every level of healthcare system Krishna, Knibb & Huissoon, 2016). Therefore, the lack of collaboration among the healthcare professional can create bottleneck issues in the telemedicine.
Due to the rapid advancements of the telemedicine technology in Australia, different software and hardware have become obsolete. Therefore, a complex technological infrastructure creates disappointing evaluation until it becomes more users friendly or ubiquitous. Therefore, the person who works in outdated technologies becomes frustrated as well as de-motivated in offering services through the old system of technology. Sometimes, governments find it difficult in replacing the entire obsolete system due to the budgetary issues.
Reimbursement of telemedicine services is one of the important barriers in developed countries like Australia (Rasmussen, Lauszus & Loekke, 2016). When patients avail services with the help of telemedicine system, then the insurance claim may not cover the cost of care which sometimes de-motivates the patients in receiving services through telemedicine.
Telemedicine health services are mainly provided by the nursing personnel in Australia. However, their contribution to the telemedicine is not acknowledged and recognised as they do not have an effective knowledge about the medicines, medical tests and treatment process. Therefore, lack of para-clinical people is one of the huge issues regarding telemedicine.
Setup of telemedicine can deploy the varieties of ICT to transmit the information through the pictures, audios, and texts along with videos to the healthcare providers so that they can offer an effective consultation to the patients (Emery, 2015). The costs of the ICT are mainly dependent on the ICT type that is used for the start-up. For developing the audio-visual platform of ICT, huge start-up costs are necessary which creates issues for some Australia based healthcare organisation.
Therefore, for resolving the issues regarding lack of IT champion, it is important for the government is offering better training to the physicians so that they can handle the operations regarding the telemedicine.
For resolving the issues regarding telemedicine policy and accreditations, the state government of Australia must frame programs, policies, regulations and guidelines regarding the telemedicine practices (Rasmussen, Lauszus & Loekke, 2016). Along with that, the state government must allocate the appropriate financial resources for the development of telemedicine.
For resolving the issues regarding the organisational structure, a healthcare organisation must develop a formal structure for the telemedicine. Along with that, the healthcare organisation must offer effective training to the employees so that they can work collaboratively with each other (de Vette et al. 2015). Moreover, a better leadership strategy must be developed in an organisation so that employees can get the necessary support to operate telemedicine. An effective conflict resolution technique must be implemented in a healthcare organisation for resolving telemedicine issues. Additionally, the department of the family and health welfare department of Australia along with the information technology department should develop a national formal level of collaboration with each other in forming the telemedicine network.
For resolving issues regarding obsolete technology, health and wellbeing department of Australia must invest huge money in the new technology. Moreover, the government must encourage different healthcare organisation in buying the latest technology by reducing the tax on the advanced machinery used in the telemedicine system.
For resolving the insurance-related issues, the government must encourage the insurance companies in covering the insurance during receiving healthcare services with the help of the telemedicine.
For resolving the issues regarding the health services, the government of Australia must arrange effective training for the nurses so that they can participate in the telemedicine with more efficiency.
The issues regarding huge setup costs can be resolved if the government of Australia will arrange findings for developing telemedicine technologies.