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Statistical Analysis: Birth and Death Rates in Australia

Q.1 Explain why age adjustment can be useful for compare different population groups. What are the two most common methods of performing adjustments?

Q.2 The WHO indicators for crude death rate, disease prevalence and incidence are expressed per 100,000 population; however, data for the crude birth rate is expressed per 1,000 population.

Does the crude birth rate includes stillborn babies?

What would be considered a high birth rate? Or a low one? Provide an example of each and outline some factors that affect birth rate.

Q.3 Consider a situation in which 500 people work in the same building.

Twenty had a head cold on 1 June 2014, which conferred immunity for 3 months. How many people were at risk of head colds on 1 August 2014?

Q.4 What would be the cumulative incidence of head colds if a further 50 people became infected between 1 June and 1 August 2014?

How did you arrive at this conclusion?

Question 5

Table 7 Estimated resident population, 2011–2013, by age groups–Australia–at 30 June 2013
  100 and over3,0523,2953,750   
  All ages22,340,02422,728,25423,133,712   

Open the resource: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Table 1.9 Deaths summary, Australia 2002-2012. In Deaths, Australia, 2012 (No. 3302.02). Retrieved from://   

Using the table above and the ABS data from Table 1.9 describing deaths per age group, calculate:

    • The crude death rate in Australia for 2012
    • The age-specific death rate for Australians aged 0-4 years
    • The age-specific death rate for Australians aged >85 years


Question and Answers

Question and answers

Answer 1 

Age adjustment is the statistical procedure that is being applied to the rates of disease, then death, injuries along with the other health issues (Hommos et al., 2017). This process is done to understand the various health issues of people that occur at different ages. The age adjustment helps to differentiate various population groups along with the various age of people (Melamed et al., 2016). This process is used so that an effective track record of death rate along with the various disease rate in the country can be understood. Comparison of the different population group allows performing in-depth analysis of the various health issues among the people of the world. For example; a nation with the higher percentage of older people might have the higher death rate than the nation with a younger population and this due to the facts that older people are very much prone to health issues. In this, the age adjustment can effectively make the different group in a more comparable way.

The two common methods are a direct and indirect method. Indirect method stratum-specific rates are applied in population to obtain a number of death in the country (Dusmez, & Akin, 2016). In the indirect method also stratum-specific rates are applied in population for obtaining the expected number of death in the selected population. These methods are considered for measuring the death rate of the country in the most specific way to understand the actual number of people are dying in the country due to a natural cause or any other cause.

Answer 2 

The crude birth rate is the calculation of the ratio of the live birth that took place in a year on the average population in the mid of that year (Maheshwari, McLernon, & Bhattacharya, 2015). This is generally expressed by the average rate of 1000 population. This is entirely performed on the basis of live birth that took place in the country. For the stillbirth babies, the fetal death rate is being calculated to analyze the rate of stillbirth within the country. 

The birth rate is high when the country is having a huge number of estimated babies for average 1000 population per year (Mathews, MacDorman, & Thoma, 2015). For example; the country Angola, Niger, Mali and etc. have the highest birth rate that is around 44.2. The birth rate 44.2 means that is a number of live birth for the year is calculated as 44200. The low birth rate of the country is considered as per low rate per 1000 population in a year. For example; the country like Japan, Italy, and Monaco is having the birth rate of 8. This rate shows the facts that in a year almost 8000 children are born in Japan. The low birth rate or the high birth rate of the country highly impact the economic condition and the development of that country. 

The factors that are affecting the birth rate of the country are as follows:

  • Female employment
  • The typical age for marriage
  • Level of poverty in the country (Yokoyama et al., 2018)
  • The rate of infant mortality
  • Social as well as the religious beliefs
  • Availability of the family planning service within the country
  • The economic prosperity of the country

Answer 3 

In the organization, 20 people have a head cold which is quite a transmitted disease, but the entire office is under conferred immunity for 3 months and for that they have built up quite an immune system to resist the cold. It can be estimated that only 50 to 55 people more can get infection till the date of 1st August. This is due to the facts that cold is generally transmitted if the people did not maintain proper hygiene. If in the organization 20 people have got head cold then the organization will immediately get them on leave for rest.  This will reduce the chance of spreading this disease among the other people. People within the organization need to maintain suitable hygiene so that they are not contaminated with the head cold disease. The 50 to 55 people are at risk due to the facts that they might have some health issue, age problem, and some immunity issues that catch cold in the very instant way. These kind of people are very much prone towards the health disease. 

Answer 4 

Cumulative incidence is the calculation as the number of new events or the case of the disease is being divided with the total number of the individuals in the population that are at risk for some time. The formula of cumulative incidence is CI = I/N where I is new cases and N is number of disease. It can be seen that is more 50 people became infected with a head cold in the office then the cumulative incidence for the issue will be 1.4. This can be understood from the facts that 50 along 20 people are contaminated with a head cold and the total number of people who are at the risk is almost 50 which show that the rate of 1.4 incidences might take place within the organization. The organization needs to develop suitable and effective measures to improve the health condition of the people within the firm.  

Answer 5 

Crude death rate in Australia

Crude death rate = (Total resident death / total population) x 100,000

Crude death rate = (147,098 / 22,728,254) x 100,000

Therefore, crude death rate is equal to 647.20 in Australia for the year 2012. 

Age specific death rate for 0-4 age Australians

Age specific death rate = (total death in specified age group / total population in same specified group) x 100,000

Age specific death rate = (1234 / 1,489,345) x 100,000

Therefore, Age specific death rate of 0-4 years of Australians are 82.855 for the year 2012.

Age specific death rate for >85 years of Australians

Age specific death rate = (total death in specified age group / total population in same specified group) x 100,000

Age specific death rate = (57,054 / 420,267) x 100,000

Therefore, Age specific death rate of >85 years of age of Australians are 13575.65 for the year 2012.

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