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Statistics Resources for Assessment-2

Assessment Criteria

Knowledge of sampling methods, and research and statistical concepts 20%

Interpretation of research concepts, statistical concepts and reported results, demonstrating applied knowledge and understanding 40 %

Critical analysis of research elements including sampling, results and limitations 30%

Academic writing (clarity of expression, correct grammar and punctuation, correct word use) and accurate use of APA referencing style 10%

Instructions:
This assessment requires you to read two articles and answer a series of questions in no more than 2000 words.
Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the statistics reported in research papers are fundamental skills in public health.

Paper 1: Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikritzhs, T., & Allsop, S. (2014). Alcohol and other drug use at school leavers' celebrations. Journal of Public Health, 36(3), 408-416. Retrieved from: http://ibubhealth.oxfordiournals.orecontent/earlv/2013/08/26/Dubmedidt087.full.bdf+html  

Read the Lam et. al. (2014) research article and answer the following questions:

1. This paper presents two hypotheses. State the null and alternative hypothesis for each one, and describe the independent and dependent variables for each hypothesis.
2. What kind of sampling method did they use, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting participants in this way?
3. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper.
4. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study, and why?
5. What is the odds ratio for engaging in unprotected sex (compared with those who engaged in safety strategies with the greatest frequency)? Interpret this by explaining what the odds ratio is telling us, including any variables that were controlled for in the model.
6. How representative do you think the sample is of the national population of schoolies? Explain why.

Paper 2: Wong, M. C., S., Leung, M. C., M., Tsang, C. S., H., .. . Griffiths, S. M. (2013). The rising tide of diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population: A population-based household survey on 121,895 persons. International Journal of Public Health, 58(2), 269-276. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxv.laureate.net.au/10.1007/s00038-012-0364-y 

Read the Wong et. al. (2014) paper and answer the following questions:

1. Describe the aims of the study. Can either aim be restated in terms of null and alternative hypotheses? Describe these where possible.
2. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper.
3. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this paper, and why?
4. What did the researchers find when they adjusted the prevalence rates of diabetes for age and sex?
5. Interpret the odds ratios for self-reported diabetes diagnosis to explain who is at the greatest risk of diabetes.
6. What impact do the limitations described by the researchers have on the extent to which the results can be trusted, and why?


Answer

Paper 1

Answer 1

In the paper, the main aim is to understand a significant proportion that is related to the adolescents who would be willing to attend celebratory events and would be often affected with the substantial alcohol along with the other drug use. The two hypotheses are the Seventeen- to 18-year-old Australians who would be willing to attend such events or parties and the likelihood of joining such celebration patterns, influences along with the impacts of drug consumption which would lead to a schooling life celebration. 

The dependent variable here is the seventeen to eighteen-year-olds Australian teenagers who would be willing to attend such a celebration event would be consuming alcohol, drugs or the related substances. The independent variable is to understand if such teenagers would be joining the celebration events or not.

Consumption of drugs at the school leaver celebration lead to risky behaviour like the unprotected sex." 

Hypotheses

Null Hypotheses (H0):

In the given paper the independent variable which shows how there has been a null hypothesis after which the school leaving celebration which accounts to the risky behavior that has been projected after school leaving children. Interpreting the dependent variable it even shows how there have been instances of the consumption of the alcohol along with the drugs which are often seen in the children concerning any occasion or the events. It includes getting affected due to the drugs and alcohol during the biggest time of the celebration and for the young adults as observed in the western countries.

 

Alternative hypotheses (H1): "It shows how during the consumption of alcohol and drugs it would be associated with the almost every special event."

 

As analyzed how there has been an independent variable reflecting during the alternative hypotheses as shown how there can be events or the occasion. It highlights the depending variable that even shows how there can be a consumption of alcohol or drugs. Even analyzed in the young adults which are observed in the western countries that show a complete milestone completion during the school, along with the significant festive events that reflect the usage of drugs and alcohol.

Answer 2

The sampling method which the paper has used is stratified sampling, as the method which has been used is of the core data which has been gathered and then it has been divided into a two-part survey design which is associated with a self-report methodology. The study design was done on the method of the respondents that were aged 17 (that is the allowed legal age of the alcohol Purchase in Australia). Upon which the segregation of the school leavers’ celebrations and thereby further segregation of the subgroups in between the female and the male groups that reflected the 56% female; 91% 17 years and 9% 18 years of age; 87% that are part of the independent school (Lam, 2013).

In the first sampling method, it has shown how there has been a young adult that is attributed to the intention to attend within the given event along with the given age of the attending it is within the 17-18 years. It covers the pre-celebration survey, along with reflecting 541 young adults that have been part of it. The advantage of such a method is sufficient understanding related to the mentality of the teenager that has been part of the event drugs and alcohol 

Advantages

  • In a stratified sample, it is often dependent on the greater precision which is equal to the simple random sample that would be related to the same size.
  • It would also be associated with the greater precision due to which the stratified sample is dependent on the smaller sample that would be able to save money.

Disadvantages

  • The disadvantage is associated with the researchers that they would be unable to associate with the population part of the given subgroup. 
  • Such a method would not be applicable in every scenario and especially in the cases, where the researchers are unable to categorize and associate with the correct subgroups and division. 

Answer 3

The demographic characters of the people in the sample are the Seventeen- to Eighteen-old Australians that are intending to attend (n = 541) a party or a celebration and also includes those population group which has already (n = 405). It includes the pre- and post-event surveys.

Further, the males consumed 18.44 along with the females 13.24 Australian who are the standard drinks that are part of the school leavers' event and compared with the post year celebration.

 

Descriptive statistics

It used tables, charts, graphs and analyzed the data through the proper methodology, drawing relevant references. The mean, mode, median, and further analysis were drawn to compare and contrast. It further did numerical calculations or graphs or table to support.

Answer 4

The inferential statistics are the inferences and predictions that would be drawing upon the population dependent on the sample of data related to the population in question.

In here it was estimated how the age ranged in between the 17-18 were part of the school-leaving population including all the males and females which have been partying previously and recently and associating with how many they consumed alcohol, drugs and the related substances.

Answer 5

The odds ratio is estimated to be 17 outcomes which are to be evaluated out of which only 14 models have been showing significant. While there have been four negative consequences (or the odd ratio) that have also shown how there has been a use of safety strategies such as the saving from the hangover, vomiting or even the related blackouts and unprotected sex. It was seen how there has been controlling on all the

Controlling for all other factors in the model and compared with those who engaged in safety strategies with the greatest frequency (the reference group), that include the odds ratios (OR) such as the protective strategies which they are having at the lowest frequency which is the 3.50 times more likely to depict that there were instances of the hangover; along with the 3.38 times that showed the blackout and 10.92 times showing the case of the unprotected sex.

The four negative consequence is shown to have safety strategies that have reflected and include the hangover, blackouts, along with the vomiting or the unprotected sex. It even shows how there has been a protective approach that has shown the lowest frequency that shows there are 10.92 times more that have unprotected sex. There is also a need for education and the system that is reflecting with the field. It shows how their unprotected sex due to the prevalence percentage that would be showing a 13.62 for the 301 respondents associated with the male and the female respondents. It even captures the condition of the teenage people that are high within the Western countries and shown an odd ration accounting to the unprotected sex in the teenagers. 

Answer 6

Among the schoolies, there has been a high instance of the adolescent alcohol along with the use of the drug (AOD) that have been evidently part of the ‘special events’ as reflected within the trends which shows how there are young adults within the Western countries, that often end up in the celebration of the school completion  which is done in anticipation and along with the alumni. Majorly in Australia, about a Year 12 graduates would be part of the school leavers’ which include the celebrations. It includes brief drugs and engagement along with the risky behavior of unprotected casual sex.




Paper 2


Answer 1

The main aim of the study was to discuss in brief about the studies in prevalence to the self-reported diabetes mellitus that has been selected over some time in between 2001 to 2008 and has been associated with the factors associated and related to diabetes. The null hypothesis is that there were no such cases of the rising tide associated with the diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population but the alternative hypothesis which has shown how there has been a population-based household that has reflected the 121,895 people which face self-reported diabetes.

Answer 2

The demographic characteristics of the people in the sample show that from a territory-wide household there have been a wide interviews conducted which have aimed for the Chinese population that are part of the years of 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2008, that focuses on self-reported diabetes and includes the wide age, sex, and household income. 

The descriptive statistics which has been used exclusively here include the charts, tables and the binary logistic regression which are the quick analysis of the independent factors that are related to diabetes. It even includes the modes of calculation such as median, mode and the related means to discuss the population self-reported diabetes along with the monthly income, household income along with drawing the relevant conclusion to the age-wise, sex-wise and monthly wise income of the true or the false reported cases.

 

Answer 3

The inferential statistics which has been used that is self-reported diabetes reported by the households and segregating in between the age, gender, monthly incomes and drawing an interpretation. It shows how much of high diabetes instances falls in between the 35 to 54 age groups and both female and male are highly affected due to this. It majorly affects the people who earn a nominal amount form 10.000-24,9999.

Answer 4

The researcher was able to conclude from his studies that there has been a rising trend of diabetes mellitus that has affected the large Chinese population along with a significant association with the strong association that is been reflected from the population demography and diabetes (Wong, 2013).

Answer 5

The odds ratio is the prevalence of diabetes in China is 5.5% The ratio is 3: 4 here in the Chinese which reflects in the assessment of the diagnosed diabetes were 1.3% while undiagnosed diabetes remains at a 4.2%. Also, the subpopulation part of diabetes has shown related symptoms.

The odd ration that reflects that there are poor people who  are the major part of the greatest risk of diabetes which has been affected with the food and their lifestyle habit. There is also a related issue of the poor people who are unable to even show there would be a suitable food product taken from the market along with the numerous health issue which would people. It even shows how there has been a female candidate primarily that has shown a high tendency and are related to the diabetes mellitus that would be determined to working function and even show a lifestyle activity. This is associated with the high health issue along with the high health problem. Interpreting that the Diabetes mellitus is one of the common diseases, and it can be projected at any point of time and of age and sex. It can also lead to a poor lifestyle along with the food habit contributed due to the genetic problem. 

 

Answer 6

There has been an increasing prevalence of diabetes seen in the year of the 2001-2008 and the trend shows a sportive. The researcher was not able to include the data from the territory wise and used the method of random based sampling methods. There has been a territory wise approach, but the limitation was the statistical findings which have been adjusted to the generalized adjustment and the prevalence figures to the demographic. The limitation was also due to the self-reported numbers ascertaining the existence of diabetes and how the subpopulation shows an equal interpretation of results.

The weakness is that there has been a numerous issue which has also projected to the Chinese people which reflect a valuable and useful process dependent on the development of the health issue. It even shows how there can be a limitation projected due to the sample that would have a tremendous impact of people and show how there is the limited health issue affecting to the diabetes problem leading to the problem of business along with the lifestyle. With the given limitation of the study, it shows diabetes affected the children until the time of the 15 years of age. It even is limited to show how there can be an effect of the health issue that reflects the Chinese people.


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