Write a critical analysis and summary of the article "Deception in Game Theory and Theory of Deception."
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The term deception is used in the historical times in order to win the wars. At that period the commanders used to make planning and tactics so that they could deceive the other person, but there is always risk because such can never be completely successful. So Deception is a kind of an activity which is used for misleading others for the benefit of deceiver. It is based on the decision taken under uncertainty and in order to remove such uncertainty can be removed with the help of extra information which is used by the deceiver for his advantage as they are designed. The study of deception is considered as diverse field and is being studied as philosophy, law, psychology and sociology. It was used as an important aspect in battles in order to win the World War II. It is now emerging under the cyberspace. People would never notice any kind of attack when such attack was made with proper planning. Now there are cyber attacks where the attackers attack and the deceivers not even know about it (Wang, Spezio, & Camerer, 2010). Cyber space offers opportunities for deception planning and execution by autonomous agents. The action to the effect is so small that the human operator cannot react that fast. The model deception theory game is actually a calculation or can say mathematics based on prototype of a deceptive tactic. It is based on the information which a person is having and the way such information is used. In imperfect information the person cannot distinguish action so the hidden person had advantage which can be used in his favor until the end of the game and if the person knew the information such thing cannot be possible and there is very less chances of it to be successful. So the strategies are made to make the game successful also considering the facts of Analogy-based Sequential Equilibrium (Ettinger, & Jehiel, 2010).
There are classes of games which are used such are Deception games, Bayesian games and Signaling game. Basically a deception game is two player game where information is distorted by deceiver. These are mostly used in political security and in political negotiations. In present the observation is done and after that the functions are performed. In Bayesian Games incomplete information are used in order to represent player perceptions. Here the incomplete information is converted into complete information. Signaling games are common knowledge probability distribution in which the actions of both the persons are observed and on the basis of which the action is taken accordingly (Hamman, Loewenstein, & Weber, 2010).
Deception design problem is analyzing of benefit-cost-risk trade-off of environmental deception in multi-agent conflicts. The deception not always plays the positive result because it always depends upon probability. There is always element of suspense in the deception as the one remain unknown even after many encounters. There is always a risk that the counter deception may be used against the person using deception. When the deception is assumed to be successful it may appear at first glance to be nothing but there is a risk if the deception may be revealed with the game play itself so there is always risk that the game shall be revealed with the action done by the deceiver itself.
The deception theory proposes an equilibrium approach on manipulation and deception which is based on the knowledge and the strategy of the opponent player. The equilibrium knowledge is based on the available knowledge of the agent and the theories on the basis of with the strategies are going to be made. The deception and belief are the major things which manipulate the strategic interaction which is taken place at the time of the deception game. Some of the examples to such are poker game, politics and investment strategies, military operations taken place. In the deception game mostly the concept of liar poker is used which means the player deceives the other person with false and pretends to do something which he was not going to do. Different strategies are made to induce the person and confuse them to gain the desired result. In the theory of deception the player concerns the belief in his favor and manipulate the other person. In the one of the most common example where the person manipulate the other person is when he is selling something where he manipulate the price of the material according to his choice and then selling it by making the other person believe the price so stated is rational and fair thereby deceiving him apparently. Also the people deceive other people by even pricing at higher than the set price and even after bargaining the person still deceive the other apparently. There is basically a rational assumption that under related literature the strategies are optimized to obtain the required result. In the class of games and the cognitive environment there is multi stage of two stage game where the previous action are observed and then on the basis of past actions decisions are taken apparently, so that the result is obtained in the favor of the deceiver. So every finite actions are based on the stages and every actions of the players are finite in numbers (Davis, 2016). Every action depends upon the behavior of the player and the action changes accordingly. In analogy based expectation of the player the behavior of the player is considered and then every player is distinguished and strategies is made accordingly. So against every players there history is examined and then according to their history the strategies are made. In equilibrium both analogy based expectations and the belief system are consistent and the player gets best result by comparing their history and then players require slight mixed strategy then they could receive the best response and gain the result. In finite environment an equilibrium always exist so that the player can always receive an erroneous result. the first stage of deception involves where the trust is build and thereafter the trust of the person is broken afterwards. The theory is always based upon the stereotype understanding of the behavior of the other persons. The bargaining tactics caused the players to create their strategies so that they could receive the result they desire as both the players make their own strategies based on the knowledge of their information they have (Davis, 2016).