Sustainable Tourism Development: Pearson BTEC HND in Travel and Tourism management
Being green, being environmentally sound, seeking a sustainable lifestyle, embarking on eco-tourism holidays – those are just a few examples of the language of sustainable tourism. But what do they mean? How do we come to a definition of sustainable tourism? Sustainability is now one of the most common concepts used in tourism development discussions both academically and in travel and tourism industry (Weaver 2007). More and more travel agencies and tour operators are embracing travel projects which are sustainable and which have a positive impact in the communities travelled and visited. The analytical framework of sustainability is broad encompassing both economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts (see Sharpley 2003). Sustainable development is now part of the agenda of both nations, travel organisations, airlines and also in the accommodation sector.
The aim of this unit is for learners to gain understanding of the rationale and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
This unit aims to increase learners’ awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism at all levels within an international, national, regional and local frameworks. Emphasis is placed on current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are identified and learners will be encouraged to apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
The principles and philosophy of sustainable development are introduced in this unit and learners will be required to show an in-depth understanding of issues such as carrying capacities, environmental impact and the guest-host relationships as they relate to current tourism initiatives, e.g. access, conservation, enclave tourism.
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:
1.1 discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to a current case study
1.2 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
2. Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development
2.1 analyse features of tourism development planning at different levels
2.2 evaluate the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments
2.3 evaluate different methods available to measure tourist impact
3. Understand the need for planning for sustainable tourism
3.1 justify the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
3.2 analyse factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
3.3 analyse different stages in planning for sustainability
4. Understand current issues related to tourism development planning
4.1 evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination
4.2 analyse the implications of balancing supply and demand
4.3 evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
5. Understand the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations
5.1 compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different
5.2 evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these destinations
1. Be able to understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
Rationale: to achieve the determined objectives eg improved employment opportunities, protection and conservation of wildlife, landscape, co-ordination between public/private partners, to maximise benefits, provide infrastructure, co-ordinate development, consumer protection; involvement of stakeholders eg developers, tourism industry, tourists and host community; public/private partnerships and advantages/disadvantages of; effective use of resources eg infrastructure; natural, cultural, heritage, human resources.
Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development
Planning: environmental; economic; social; international; national; regional; local; strategic; short term; qualitative; quantitative; methods of measuring tourism impact eg Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM), Environmental Impact Studies, Pro Poor Tourism; Responsible Tourism, interactive planning systems and processes
Development: preservation, conservation, new build
Understand the need for planning for sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism: definitions e.g. Brundtland Report (1987), Triple Bottom Line, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), Principles for Sustainable Development (1995)
Principles: planning considerations, benefits to the environment, the host community, the tourism industry, the visitor; factors of supply of facilities and resource weighed against demand; proposed developments e.g. infrastructure required; interdependence e.g. of society, economy and the natural environment; citizenship e.g. rights and responsibilities, participation and cooperation; future generations; sustainable change e.g. development
Understand current issues related to tourism development planning
Current issues: conflict e.g. tension between the planner, tour operator, tourist, government, developer, local community, guest-host relationship; impacts e.g. economic, social, environmental; access e.g. balance of supply and demand, imposition of limits, pressure on finite resources; enclave tourism e.g. advantages and disadvantages to the local community, moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
Understand the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations
Socio-cultural: social change, changing values, crime and gambling, moral behaviour, change in family structure and roles, tourist/host/relationships, provision of social services, commercialisation of culture and art, revitalisation of customs and art forms, destruction and preservation of heritage
Environmental: types of conservation and pollution e.g. air, visual, noise etc., land use, ecological disruption, pressures on infrastructure and finite resources, erosion, preservation of environment e.g. national parks, drainage, irrigation
Economic: generation of employment, provision of foreign exchange, multiplier effect of tourism as contribution to the balance of payments, economic leakage, development of the private sector, foreign ownership and management
Developing countries: countries eg India, Thailand, Jordan
Emerging destinations: destinations for medical tourism eg India, Thailand, Hungary; other destinations eg Bulgaria, Qatar, Shanghai
Awarding Body: Pearson BTEC
Course: BTEC HND IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Unit: UNIT 7 - SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
In this present era, tourism holds one significant position for the development of any country by creating more value in the GDP and generating more employment opportunities for the residents in the particular country. However, in some cases tourism creates some harsh impacts in the natural resources of the country. Therefore, effective strategy needs to be developed to reduce the bad impact on the resources and generate more revenue to develop the economy of the country. Sustainable tourism development is one of the approaches that the government of any country must adapt to achieve huge growth in their GDP and minimize the bad affect on the resources. Sustainable tourism development stresses upon the preservation of the cultural as well as natural resources by increasing the awareness regarding the ecological equilibrium as well as environmental preservation. This assignment is intended to describe the sustainable tourism development of the Philippines.
There are numerous stakeholders in the tourism industry of the Philippines; they are the national and the local government. Institution that engages in financing the tourism projects, different non-governmental as well as community based companies, different private companies that provide accommodation and food related services to the customers. Along with that, the trade unions of the tourism employees, tourists, the local populations are also included in the stakeholders group. As stated by Bramwell and Sharman (2011), planning can be described as the process to set different goals, outlining tasks, development strategies as well as schedules that can helps to achieve the goals. There are mainly two approaches of the planning are chaos theory and the proactive stance. In case of the tourism, planning is required to find and implement development strategies, balance the supply and demand and satisfy the goals of the stakeholders. The main intention of the government from the planning of the tourism development is developing the structure of the country (Bramwell and Lane, 2013). Through the effective planning, government can generate better employment opportunities and achieve a better growth in the GDP.
Government can develop the economy of the Philippine by maintaining the coordination among the public as well as private partners, protecting the rights of the guests and ensuring a good quality of the services as well as products. Effective planning related to the tourism can help the nongovernmental organization to secure the effectiveness of the natural resources of the Philippines. A very good planning helps to conserve and protect the wildlife and landscape of the Philippine that benefitted different nongovernmental organization whose main task is protecting the resources. Effective planning also helps different private companies to achieve huge profit by serving accommodation and food services. A good planning effectively organizes all of the private organization so that they can maintain an established standard and provide very good services to the customers (Jamal and Stronza, 2012). Moreover, trade unions are benefitted by providing effective protection to the employees involved in the tourism sector regarding the contract of employment. On the other hand, tourists of the Philippine gets huge benefits from the effective tourism related planning. They get good quality leisure services at the affordable costs due to the effective planning in the tourism sector of the Philippine. The financer institution that financing different tourist’s project can achieve enormous profit as the return of their investments due to the effective tourism related planning.
As stated by Simpson (2015), partnership can be defined that mutual relationship among the entities they can involve the sharing of the work, power, information and support with each other so that a common goal can be achieved for the mutual benefits. In the Philippine, both the private and the public sector are working with each other in partnerships to achieve different sustainable development of the country. The partnerships of both the public and the private sectors utilize the resources and the funds of both the sector that can provide an effective level of the success to the country. The partnership between the private and public sector reduces the tendency of the private sector to increase the cost of their services without any reason. This obviously benefitted the customers to get effective services at the lowest possible costs. As Philippine is belonging from the emerging economy so that this partnership helps of the country helps them to get more funds for the development the infrastructure of the country. Moreover, this partnership also generates effective number of employment in the country that can help the Philippine to achieve more financial growth (Bramwell and Sharman, 2011). Along with that, the partnership among the public and private organization also generates the huge number of national income in the country and helps the government to maintain the heritages in their country. A good partnership among the private and public sector improve the level of services. Moreover, it also helps them to share the level of risks among them.
However, there are certain disadvantages of these partnerships that are there is huge possibility regarding the loss of governmental control (Hall, 2011). This is because, involvement of the private partners in the decision making process to deliver the services may increases the power of the private companies that may destroy the governmental control on those companies. Moreover, the partnership may reduce the quality of the service or efficiency of the services. Along with that, some political issues and lack of competition condition may create in the county that may decrease the service quality. The partnership may also generate the responsibility related issues to provide extensive services to the customers.
Planning in the tourism is mainly concerned the regulatory and anticipatory changes in any system for promoting the orderly development for increasing the social, environmental as well as economic benefits in the process of development. As stated by Jamal and Getz (2013), planning is one of the orderly sequences that are designed to achieve the balance between different goals or an individual goal. The main political objective behind the tourism development in Philippines is achieving exposure that is more international and increasing effective national prestige. The socio-cultural objective of the tourism development in the Philippines is encouraging the advancement of the cultural and societal resources as well as values along with the lifestyle and tradition. The economic objective in the tourism planning is increasing the national income and employment opportunities at Philippine. On the other hand, the environmental objective of the tourism planning at Philippine is controlling the pollution level in the country. Different levels of the tourism planning are described in the below mentioned figure.
Figure 1: Different levels
(Source: Bahaire and Elliott-White, 2012)
For facilitating tourism development planning in the international level, the tourism sector of the Philippines should engages more than one single nation and must comprises of different regions such as promotion of the mutual tourism, transport services in the worldwide basis and other different supportive businesses (Inskeep, 2014). Tourism development planning is concerned with the tour as well as flow programming of the tourists among a range of countries. Along with that to facilitate development of tourism in the international level, it is mandatory to develop different types of complementary services in different major attraction facilities as well as features in different nearby countries. Therefore, before the development of the tourism in international level involvement of the promotion program and marketing strategy of multiple countries is important.
For the development of the tourism development planning in the national level, Philippineconsider the physical structure as well as tourism policy of the country along with the characteristics of the accommodation facilities (Tosun, 2014). The feature of tourism development planning in the national level is for creating an effective tourism in the Philippine a good legislation, investment policies and good organizational structure based on tourism is mandatory. Moreover, the national level implementation technique includes different short-term strategy and the staging of the development.
The tourism development planning at the regional level at Philippine includesthe regional policy, education at the regional level, tourism related accommodations, location of the development of the tourism etcetera (Allen et al. 2012). For the development of the sustainable tourism at the regional level of Philippine, it is mandatory to develop the plan according to the location types and attraction relatedtourism.
For the development of planning at the sub-regional level, accommodationlocation, features of the attraction and different tourist’sfacilities are mainly considered.
Tourism development planning mainly is done in different levels such as international, national, regional and sub-regional level. For facilitating the tourism development planning, Philippine can follow different planning approaches such as, market-led, conventional, integrated, supply-led and interactive etcetera. Interactive planning systems and approaches at the Philippines are mainly co-operative, collaborative as well as the participatory (Jamal and Getz, 2013). In the integrated planning systems, everything is directed with the incorporations of the opinion of the local community as well as the desires of them. For enhancing the execution of the plan, interactive planning g mainly stresses on the top down approaches that are accompanied by the bottom up contributions. Interactive planning process mainly includes the market orientation and provision of the appropriate product to the customers (Tosun, 2010). The main significance of the interactive plan for the tourism development in Philippine are ensuring that all level of the communities, organizations and the tourist are getting involved in the planning to avoid the spending of more than necessary budgets, maximize the potential of the destinations and minimize the negative influence on different local communities. As in the Philippine market, both the tourists and the tourism industry are aware of the social costs as well as negative environment for the development of the tourism so that they are involved in the interactive tourism development.
Huge amount of tourists in different tourist spot of the Philippines mainly create more employment opportunity in the market (Beerli and Martı́n, 2014). The tourism impacts of the Philippines can be measured by observing the disaggregating national data of the Philippines, which helps to estimate the local as well as regional level of tourism information. Moreover, by facilitating the visitor’s survey on regular basis, the tourism sector of the Philippine can measure the affect of tourists. Tourism sector of the Philippine canassess the volume of the business visits through the ad hoc and occasional surveys. Moreover, Cambridge economic model and STEAM model can measure the affect of the tourists (Holden, 2013). Economic model mainly measure three different types of effects such as direct effect (spending of the visitors), induced effect (wages earned from the businesses) and the indirect effect (expenditure of the first line business from the supplier).
Through the Cambridge economic model, it is possible to calculate the value of the tourists based on the readily available local statistics. It is effectively possible to drive the model based on the data that locally collected.This model is also effective to calculate the rate of local wages, occupancy related information’s etcetera (Kimet al. 2012). Itanalyzed sophisticated economic impact. Therefore, Cambridge economic model in the Philippine measures the number of day visited by the visitors, level of employment, volume of the staying trips etcetera (Murphy, 1985). On the other hand, STEAM monitors the trend by evaluating the local economic impact of the tourism. This model measures the revenuegenerated by the main visitors category, total number of visitors, number of full time employment etcetera.
There are numerous stakeholders for the sustainable tourism development such as the local government of the Philippines along with the local members of the society, which are mainly, represented by the nongovernmental organizations as well as different community based organizations (Aas et al. 2015). Managers of different tourists spot such as the museum, different historic sites and parks are also involved in the development of the sustainable tourism development. Different private business organizations that are involved in providing different facilities such as accommodation and transportation are also involved in the development of the sustainable tourism development (Lee, 2013). It has been observed that there is more than 7000 acre of therefore, hotel as well as the residential community are actively participating in the sustainable tourism development. It has been observed that main intention of the government is reserves the natural resources and secure huge amount of economic development. the interest of the NGO are revitalization of the local companies alongside of the tourists destinations, increasing level of preservation and reservation of the national heritage and reviving different traditional traditions, arts and crafts. On the other hand, the interest of the different private organization at the Philippine is only securing huge amount of profit, therefore conflict in interest may be occurred to develop the sustainable tourism development.
This problem can be resolved by developing a clear policy regarding the sustainable tourism development. It is also important to keep the developed policy balanced so that it can satisfy the needs of different stakeholders (Byrd, 2015). After the development of the policy, it is important to disseminate the policy and then it is mandatory to inform all of the stakeholders regarding the policy. After that, it is also important for the government to provide free counseling to the other stakeholders so that they can understand the necessity to have a sustainable tourism development (Yu et al. 2011). Along with that, it is also important for the government to invest more to develop the local community so that they can feel more interest to develop sustainable tourism development. Moreover, investments in the protection of the heritage and in different local resources are also necessary to resolve this conflict of interest (Getz and Jamal, 2013).
As stated by Yu et al. (2011), demand refers to the quantity that is required by the customers. Here the quantity that is demanded by any customers is the amount that they are willing to buy at a certain costs. On the other hand, supply refers to the quantity that is offered by any market. Here the suppliers supply the quantity by a certain costs. In case of tourism, the mix of different attractions generally represents opportunities. It has been observed that in tourism demand are always shaped by the opportunities provided by the tourism. For the achievement of the success of any tourist’s destination, it is always mandatory to provide different high quality products by following the sustainable principles. As per Zhanget al. (2014), demand for tourism is the total number of persons who want to travel or want to use the facilities as well as services regarding tourism from the places of their residence. On the other hand, tourism supply defined as the supply of different assets, goods as well as services that are enjoyed by the visitors along with that, occasioned by the visitors. In case of the tourism in Philippines, the supply is ranged from the mind made resources to the natural resources. For providing an effective tourism supply to the visitors in Philippine, the infrastructure is mainly include the transport, telecommunication as well as the accommodation services. On the other hand, their tourism supply services mainly include different transport agencies, companies that provide tour services and the offices related to visitors information.
Figure 2: Components of the tourism supply
(Source: Liu, 2013)
It has been observed that in order to achieve greater level of demand from large number of visitors at the Philippines, it is highly important to approach them with a range of products and services that can attract them to accept services from different companies at Philippines. As stated by Crouch (2012), if the price of any product is increases and the remaining things became equal, then different organization at Philippine must offer more services for sale. The main reason behind that is increasing level of price always decreases they demand of the product. This situation mainly comes into action when demand for the tourism at the Philippine increases and the supply remain unchanged. On the other hand, if demand remains unchanged and the supply of the services at the tourist’s destination of the Philippines increases then the costs of the services may decrease. Therefore, it is the duty of the government of the Philippine to maintain the equilibrium among the supply and demand, otherwise some the existing private companies that provide services to the customers may suffer.
As stated by Liburd and Edwards (2010), enclave tourism refers to the holidays of the visitors in some self contained resorts that are situated in the coastal and tropical areas along with the offering of different extra facilities such as swimming pool facilities, scuba diving facilities and tennis courses etcetera. Enclave tourism in the Philippine leaves no chances for the local retailer to achieve some profits because the tourism provider here provides every facility (Shaw and Shaw, 2016). For example, when any tourists remain in a resorts or a cruise ship, then they get all of the services they required. In this case, the resorts or the ship that provides all of the facilities achieve huge amount of profit but their contribution to the national economy of the Philippine is less. The advantage of the enclave tourism includes creation of employment; minimal level of damage of the environment and fosters foreign investments. On the other hand, the disadvantage of the enclave tourism mainly include tourists may experience the region that do not meet their criteria and high level of the leakage. Moreover, this tourism involves less effective relationship among the host and guests. This kind of tourism does not include the utilization of the local services or goods (Mbaiwa, 2015). This kind of tourism creates the ethical and moral issues because this tourism does not provide the visitors to taste the services provided by the local retailer of the Philippine. Along with that, it also creates constraint for the local retailers and do not provide the opportunities to the local retailers to achieve profit. Therefore, it creates moral and ethical issues both for the guests and for local retailer.
This section describes the comparison between the Philippine and Thailand. It has been observed that both the Philippine and Thailand has involved them in the development of the sustainable tourism and became aware regarding the native effect of the tourism. Thailand follows a Laissez Faire approach for the development of the tourism (Associates, 2017). In the Thailand, their lack of approach regarding private sector as well as bad planning makes them more vigilant. In the Thailand, the highest density is on the Phuket and Bangkok. Among those places, Bangkok accounts for more than 76% and Phuket accounts for 37% of national income(Hydrant.co.uk, 2017). On the other hand, Metro manila is the place where tourism density is highest. The main problem in the Philippine to develop tourism is there tourism is highly politicized and there are lacks of strong leadership strategy to facilitate long-term goal in the country. Thailand is one of the emerging countries so that their economic condition is better than the Philippine. For this reason, Thailand can invest huge amount of money to facilitate the sustainable tourism development that is very much difficult for the Philippine because they are not financially strong. For their economic condition, Thailand can facilitate different massive information campaign, whereas, it is difficult for the Philippine to facilitate those information campaign because it requires the involvement of the huge money (Philippines.hvu.nl, 2017). Thai government does not involve them in creating sustainable tourism because they already have developed the sustainable tourism development by involving the private sectors only. On the other hand, Philippine government has involved them in the development of the sustainable tourism development, which creates some conflict of interest among different stakeholders(Hydrant.co.uk, 2017).
|Lack of infrastructure is the major issues for the development of sustainable tourism development||Lack of governmental policy to control the private sector is the major issues|
|Poor utilization of the information technology such as internet and social media is the biggest issue that can attract more number of customers||Thailand government is effective to utilize the internet media to attract the customers.|
|Bad reputation of the Philippine is one of the constraints that can limit the development of the tourism in that country||Good reputation and strict rule regarding crime attracts more number of customers|
Table 1: Comparison between the Philippine and Thailand
(Source: Philippines.hvu.nl, 2017)
Recommendations to the Philippine:
Philippine involves lot of Small Island that have lots of things to offer without requiring huge money. However, the main problem is Philippine is suffering from lack of development of theinfrastructure so that they need some investors organization who will invest huge money on the development of the Philippine. This is because investments are required to develop effective communication infrastructure, power stations, accessible ports, industrial zones etcetera.
In order to develop the sustainable tourism, Philippine must develop a good partnership among the private and public organizations. The government must develop a strict rule regarding utilization of the power.
Philippine currently have very bad reputation, in order to revive the country from the condition it is important for the government of the country to implement some strict rule regardingthe crime so that any criminal feel fear before committing any crime.
Philippine must increase the utilization of the internet media, along with that, the government of the country must encourage the citizens regarding the utilization internet media. Government must develop their information technology sector by involving more professional as well as consultant. Moreover, government must invest more money in the development of the communication infrastructure.
Recommendation to the Thailand:
Thailand currently has lush jungles, beautiful beaches along with the cultural heritages. Therefore, it is important for the Thailand to resolve their weaknesses and develop their tourism with more effectiveness. It has been observed that Thailand is currently facing problem to control the private sectors. For resolving the issues, it is important for the government to strict rule and policy to provide limited power to the private sector organizations. Along with that, law must be implemented to resolve the corruptions in the country.
Thai government must involve some effective planner to facilitate more sustainable tourism planning in the country.
From the above discussion, it is observed that tourism always posses a harsh impact on the environment, therefore, it is important to develop an effective sustainable tourism so that all of eth natural resources can be preserved and maximum economic benefits can be achieved. For the achievement of the tourism development, it is mandatory to have an effective planning because without any effective planning it is almost difficult to secure huge profit from the tourism development. Moreover, it is also important to implement different policy and rules so that conflict of interests cannot be created among the stakeholders. Moreover, for an effective tourism in a country, different issues such as moral, ethical and environmental issues need to be resolved.