SYAD 310 System Analysis And Design Assessment 2 Answer

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Question :


COURSE: Bachelor of Business (Information Systems Specialisation)
Unit Code:
SYAD 310
Unit Title:
Systems Analysis and Design
Type of Assessment:
Assessment 2 – Group Assignment
2000 (+/- 10 Percent) words for the report

Unit Learning Outcomes addressed:
  1. Describe and apply iterative incremental systems software development processes, such as structured, object-oriented and agile approaches
  2. Critically analyse and verify business and system requirements, including producing
  3. Analysis and design models for an information system
  4. Work effectively as part of a team in the production of a systems requirements and design documen

Assessment Task:
A written assignment undertaken in groups of three or four students in the form of systems requirements and systems design models addressing a problem case study. Students may choose to adopt a waterfall or agile approach but must justify their
Total Mark:
40 Marks
40% of total unit marks


Case Study:

Universal Pathology Ltd.

Due to recent demand in health services Universal Pathology is expanded in states and Territories of Australia. Universal Pathology Managing Director strategic planning is to develop new information system to handle all business operation electronically. UPL current system is inadequate to provide real time information to their pathology staff and access to records, and patients need to go to centre to retrieve their test results.

System Analyst:

Assume you are Systems Analyst, work for Pioneer IT company. You have been asked to consult and begin systems analysis phases by conducting interviews, reviewing existing reports, and observing office operations. Universal Pathology team perform service and test procedure which are coded. Code consist of Four-letter suffix (e.g. ULPT) and Five-digit numeric. The new system aim is to provide opportunity for significant cost saving for Universal Pathology, and will help their staff to go online and update test results, check record and schedule appointment as well as provide convenience for patient. UPL required various report you learned during your fact-finding.

  • To create hourly appointment report, which shows the patients who are to be reminded of their next day’s test appointments. Information such as patient ID, name, contact, appointment time, need to be recorded
  • Overall daily appointment list for each patient. Information such as scheduled appointment times, patient name and pathology test to be performed, including the code and description.
  • Another report showing weekly patient report showing list of each patient and their charges
  • Patient statement for weekly shall include the date, household name and contact, balance, total charges, total payments, and balance.
  • Monthly Insurance company report.

Addition to all the listed report, the Universal Pathology would like automated e-mail and text messaging capability for sending patient reminders on appointment scheduling time. Finally, the new system needs to track employee schedules, vacation information and payment.

For this project prepare report on type of information system, fact finding method most appropriate, system development and draw Use case diagram, DFD, ERD diagram and show their relationship.

You are free to make any assumptions, but please mention them clearly in your report.


Write report on following questions:

  1. What types of system requirements will you focus on for Universal Pathology Ltd? Explain each one in detail.
  2. What fact-finding methods you think is appropriate for collecting information from employees at Universal Pathology Ltd? Suggest at least three methods and explain the pros and cons of each.
  3. Describe two systems development tools and two development methods you can used for system development Universal Pathology Ltd.

Modelling Exercise

  1. Create a use case diagram for Universal Pathology Ltd.
  2. Prepare a context diagram for Universal Pathology Ltd information system.
  3. Prepare a diagram level 0 DFD for Universal Pathology Ltd. Be sure to show numbered processes for handling patient information, appointments, and report processing.
  4. Create an initial ERD for the new system that contains at least four entities.
  5. Analyze each relationship to determine if it is 1:1, 1: M, or M: N.
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Answer :

Executive summary 

The Pathology Lab system has been designed to start replacing their existing manual, paper-based system with any pathology laboratory. Control of the following information is the new system; Patient details, room size, medical and administrative personnel and patient data. All resources are to be delivered efficiently and cost-effectively, with either the goal of reducing the time and money currently necessary for such activities.

A considerable division of the business of some Pathology Lab includes the collection, administration and well-timed recovery of large quantities of in sequence. This information includes; waiting lists for confidential patient records and medical history, details, personnel scheduling and various facilities. All this knowledge needs to be handled in an efficient and cost-effective manner, so that clinic's resources can be successful The PLS used can automate the efficient and error-free management of the Pathology Lab. It aims at standardizing data and consolidating data that guarantees data integrity and eliminates inconsistencies.(5)


Australia has a well-equipped clinic with all the latest equipment at Universal Pathology Lab in Australia. The clinic has separate waiting and consultation areas which allow sufficient space for patients to comfortably wait at the clinic. The doctor is a specialist Pathology Laboratory providing a variety of medical facilities.  Payments can be made by various modes such as cash, debit cards and cheques.

Please scroll up to the top Pathology Lab address and contact information at Australia. At the moment Pathology Lab uses a manual management system and holding vital details up. The current system requires great many paper forms extend right through the pathology lab, with data stores infrastructure Management. Frequently in transit, forms are lacking to ensure a rigorous audit process between departments that no sensitive information is damaged. There are several versions of the same details In the Pathology Department, and can result in data discrepancies in different data Shops. (1)


1. A major part of any Pathology Lab's operation includes collecting, handling, and retrieving vast quantities of information in good time. These include: client identifying information and health information, nursing records, room and patient scheduling, staff scheduling, operating room scheduling and waiting lists for various facilities. All this in sequence must be handled efficiently and cost-effectively So that the resources of an organization can be used efficiently will PLS automate pathology laboratory operations to make it more useful and free of charge fault. It provides standard data and merges data maintaining integrity of the data and elimination of discrepancies. (3)

For Universal Pathology Lab, the types of system requirements need to be focused on are as follows: 

  1. Security: UPL requires system to be secure one, i.e., free of threat or data loss.
  2. Immediate knowledge retrieval:-Proposed main objective the framework is designed to provide for rapid and effective information retrieval. Information type will be available whenever the user so requires.
  3. Immediate storage of information:-Many are available in manual system issues of storing the greatest amount of information.
  4. Simple to use:-The device should be, and should be, easy to run that it can be produced in a short time span and fit into the Small user allocation.
  5. Authorization: only authorization person can access not can access third party 

2. Fact finding is data analysis and information based on approaches that involve sampling of existing records, review, assessment, evaluations, selection, prototyping and joint requirement planning. Technology analysts use effective fact-finding methods to evaluate and execute the existing framework. It is very important to collect the necessary facts for the application of tools in the creation of the method, although techniques cannot be used quickly and effectively before sufficient collection from facts. It approaches are old in the initial stage of the System Creation development process, including the universal pathology lab's mechanism, design, and pre - completion assessment. Even the information used in the information system can be evaluated using three steps: information-facts used to produce valuable information, process-functions for achieving objectives and user interaction interface designs (6)

Visits to Research and Web

In pathology lab, universal pathology and usability testing is a way of examining problems that have already been discussed by other sources that could be human. The analyst visits other business, which had previously experienced similar problems, to fix the problem requirements. In addition, the analyst can collect data from the database, text sources, research papers and the Website as well.


If the problem is already solved it will save time. Researcher should recognize how various public have solved the identical problems before. Researchers are still aware of the information regarding the new development system.


Relevant information source require authority to connect. Since issue history is not registered, the problem is hard to solve.

Surveys are in fixed format

Fixed-style questionnaires are designed to collect in rank from predefined question design. Users are able to choose the outcome of the replies given. There are three types of fixed-format questions: questions graded by multiple choices (strongly accepted, accepted, no opinion, disagreement, positive disagreement), questions classified (numbering individual tastes).


Persons must fill out a form and provide the responses freely to the researcher. That is cheap technique. Users are more likely to respond to detailed responses because their personal information is not expected to be revealed. Simple to quantify and evaluate responses.


It may receive partial replies. Psychoanalyst can't detect user reactions in the language of the body. It has no ability to describe either abstract or incomplete answers. Hard to prepare good questionnaires.

Effective Appointment

Structured Appointment is an Appointment that requires predetermined of questions. The close-ended type of questions is used in a formal appointment to limit the answers to decide the choices, concise and clear responses to the appointment.


They have faith respond questions more efficiently by inspiring an appointment. More input from the Appointment the machine analyst will look at. System analysts may schedule more relevant questions for appointment, or change responses for each participant. Device analyst can understand the Appointment' nonverbal messages by perceiving body movements and facial expression.


Appointment for technique discovery is time-consuming and costly process. Additionally, communication abilities of the computer researcher affect the arranging time for appointments.

3. A business should manage it appropriately, just as it manages other resources, to optimize the utility of knowledge. Managers need to realize that cost is correlated with all information being produced, distributed, protected, processed, and retrieved. While knowledge is all around us, it is not free, and it should not be taken for granted its strategic use to competitively place a company. (1)

System development tools

Computer –Aided software tools

Database- MYSQL create a database pathology test

Operating system-appointment, instruments  

SDLC method, and the study and implementation of object-oriented systems

System development methods  

Technical feasibility 

The project entitled "pathology test Framework" is technically feasible due to the function listed below. Java designed the software which is the graphical interface for Users.

This provides a decent reliability, usability and flexibility, all of which make Java suitable for this design (Sarangi et al., 2015). So Java’s new developer is a versatile language.

Method economically feasible

The computerized system would help automate selection n that leads the revenue and data of the organization. With for this software developer, the use of computers and man powers is expected to increase by about 80-90 per cent. It is expected that expenses involved by not designing the system will be fantastic, because valuable information can be necessary manually.

Method of operating practicability

Under this agreement, the administration would know the details of each agreement that can be submitted and the data will be kept as distributed, and if any inquiries will be found according to the demands and requirements of everyone concerning that particular contract.


Use Case Diagram 

Using model behavior case diagrams in a system, and let users understand what the person requires (Atkinson et al., 2002). The person who has the stick is what is considered an actor. Use case description to outline a process and explain who can do it, and more importantly, which they can't do. Use case diagram contains use cases and actors, which displays the relationships between use cases which directors. (3)

A Use situation is a definition of a series of action sequences by people who wished it to be made as an ellipse containing a solid line, and therefore its name. Analysis of the use system is a behavioural diagram that displays a sequence of use scenarios and participants and their connections. It's a mix of the performers and the use cases. In the real world an actor represents an entity.

  • The goal is to show the relationships among case of use and participant.
  • To represent device requirements from a user perspective.
  • An individual can be an end-user of the application, or an outside machine.

Actor- Appointment, patient, pathology lab 

Use case- Login/signup is main and secure use case for visitor and client 

Take scheduled time and their type like daily, weekly, hourly

Appointment scheduling date and time 

Patient report, payment, and assurance 

Pathology lab for testing Data Flow Diagram

Data Flow Diagram 

Context Diagram

A context-level DFD for both the system produces information for system use by the primary external entities and consumes the system-generated information. The labelled arrow represents objects with data or object hierarchy. The context diagram gives various views of information technology. Rectangles also called particles represent data entities identified by indicators marked with a transformation. Here the DFD is interpreted in a hierarchical way i.e. the entire structure represents the first design of transmitted data (Jilani et al., 2011). Consequently the DFD refine the background diagram (level 0 DFD), giving the information to each following phase. A DFD 's function is to show the scope and limitations of a whole system (Selamat, 2019). It can be used as a communication tool between a project manager and whoever plays an advantage of those opportunities and acts as the basis for comparison for a system shift.

The patient will pick the appropriate test and the laboratory will be charged the cost of the test while the images are collected as cash upon distribution. (2)Zero level Diagram

Zero level Diagram

A level 0 data flow diagram ( DFD), which is also known as a system process, shows a full data structure and illustrates how it interacts with external entities (Ibrahim and Yen, 2010). This explanation Context level level 0 shows how a system like this might work in a traditional business.ERD


This diagram of the ER (Entity Relationship) represents the model of the Laboratory Management System Entity.

Universal Pathology System displays all the database tables’ visual tools and the relationships between Lab, patient, doctor, payment, pathology test, Appointment, weekly patient report, insurance.

It used structural data and defines the relationships between structured data groups of functionalities of the laboratory management system. The main entities of the laboratory management system are patient, doctor, payment, pathology test, Appointment, weekly patient report, insurance. In Universal pathology Laboratory management systems have entities and their attributes. (1)

Appointment Entity: Appoint_ID,Appoint_name, Hourly_appoint, Daily_appoint, weekly_appoint, charges, Pat_ID 

Pat_ID is the foreign key from patient entity 

Appoint_ID is the primary key

Weekly patient report entity: Report_ID, prescriptions, Duration, improvement, schedule_time, pat_ID, appoint_ID 

Report_ID is the primary key

pat_ID, appoint_ID are foreign key 

Doctor Entity : Doc_ID, Doc_name, address, Qualification, Specialty, Pat_ID, Path_test_ID  

Pat_ID,Path_test_ID  are foreign key

Doc_ID is the primary key

Patient Entity : pat_ID, Pat_name, Address, contact_no, AppointmentDate/time, Household_name

Pathology Test Entity:Pat_test_ID, Path_code, test_name, description,Pat_ID 

Primary key -Pat_test_ID

Pat_ID is foreign key

Payment Entity: Pay_ID, pay_name, Pay_method, balance , pat_ID

Primary key -Pay _ID 

Insurance entity:Insu_ID, Insurance_type, durations, charges, pat_ID, Pay_ID

Insu_ID is the primary key

Foreign key -pat_ID, Pay_ID


Universal Pathology research facility is one of the major research lab pathology companies in particular. Often known for Pathology Laboratories, Diagnostic Centers, MRI Scan Centers, Blood Testing Centers, CT Scan Centers, Blood Home Visit Centers, Blood Collection Centers, Home Pathology Services and more. Find name, telephone number, review & feedback, photos, maps of the universal laboratory pathology, Australia. Australia is known for providing excellent patient care among the finest Pathology Labs in town, Universal Pathology Lab in Australia. The clinic is centrally located in the town's prominent Australia area. It is close to Near Nursery Park, which makes it more suitable to receive medical advice from the doctor not just for residents of the city, as well as for people from several other communities. There seems to be no shortage of public transportation to reach the clinic from any major area of the city.