1- State the importance our perceptions have in the decisions and judgements we make every day in the workplace
2- Describe a simple model of the perceptual process and how it enables us to construct our individual view of the world.
The term ‘Personality’ have evolved from its Latin descent ‘Persona’ which intends to indicate a dimension of “Mask” over our actual identity. Furthermore, it may also refer to an individual's thought process associated with diverse empirical feelings and demeanors that the respective individual have displayed consistently and which owns the potential to considerably influence one’s morals, values, ethics , attitude and perceptions. Thus, apparently the study of Personality appear empirically driven that intends to provide justification of some superficial human traits but some of the eminent psychoanalysts and social theorists have employed rich apprehensions of art and culture in order to characterize a particular human trait or proclivity. On that note, the notion of Personality can be revised and proposed as a mobile and organized metric of unique and stable inclinations possessed by an individual that have the potential to influence the very ambience, demeanors, emotions and cognitions. In an organizational context, it is an indispensable feature and on the basis of which the respective employees obtain tasks that are diametrically distinguishable in terms of excellence. Moreover, organizational behavior is typically measured in terms of Intelligence (both General and Multiple), Personality, Motivation and Perception.
Key Personality Theories
The purpose that the governing Personality theories serve is to develop a systematic account of the diversity of characteristic features across individuals in order to decipher the respective perceptions and corresponding actions (Baudson & Preckel, 2013). Thus, the moot objective of the Personality theories can be categorized as;
The analyses associated with the development of Personality have found their origins from the rudimentary “Nature-Nurture Debate” that the eminent psychoanalysts have extensively employed to study the driving forces that advocates the shaping of personalities (Cooper, Connolly & Kugler, 2015). This famous debate proposes that the drivers of the biological conditioning (genes) and the environmental conditioning (respective society) are potential adversaries to each other and the eclectic or homogeneous blend of these two omnipresent factors eventually synthesize the personality of an individual. Most of the prevalent studies have served the enquiry to identify the governing driver among these two and ultimately concede that both of the drivers are imperative for a personality to develop (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).
The governing parameters which advocate the shaping of an unique personality can be categorized as;
Heredity- This comprising factor intends to imply the genetic factors that command our biological conditioning and consequently determine some of the major aspects of the individual’s character. The major aspects may consist of Complexion (whether one is tall or short), Immunity and resistance to illness, Temperament and several other unique characteristic features have considered to be inherited from our ancestors.
Culture- The values and cultural inclinations of the immediate surroundings plays a significant role in the process of shaping a individual personality. Since it tends to govern our personal morals and proclivities, individuals from distinct cultural and ethnic backgrounds is prone to behave differently in the premises of intercultural exchange and holds a substantial possibility to influence the perceptions and attitude of the immediate respondent.
Family Background- The socio-economic and socio-political stance of the family of the respective individual along with the chronology of birth spreads a significant impact on the psychological upbringing of personality. Moreover, the corresponding education and unique ethnic background of the parents and potential relatives of the respective individual also facilitates the shaping of individual psychology.
Experiences in Life- There are specific psychological traits which develop within an individual and mainly driven by the positive or negative events that often occur and its subsequent comprehensive conclusions. The notion of trust, generosity and esteem can be included in this domain and the respective responses of the immediate participant in an encounter facilitate the shaping and upbringing of personalities.
Company- This influential factor of psychological shaping is founded upon a popular adage of “A Person is known by the company he or she keps”. Every individual possesses the potential to influence the perception, moral and values of some immediate respondents. As the presence of an unique convincing spirit is an integral component of any unique discourse, it inevitably tends to influence the values and attitudes.
The conventional approach of discerning an unique personality was to detect and explain the respective personality in terms of characteristic features and traits. It have expressed personality as oriented around trials to discern and symbolize the permanent characteristic traits that subsequently explains the behavior of the individual. The distinctive features of an individual such as aggressiveness, pomposity, ambition, timidity etc can be characterized under this theory. It is celestially impossible to forecast the demeanors by taking such a huge amount of traits into account and subsequently the attention get localized within certain specific traits (Bhargava et al. 2013). On the other hand, few scholars of this field have outlined some of the governing features as superficial and eventually prepares a metric of 16 unique personality factors that have the ability to predict embedded human behavior (Corr, 2015). These traits are considered and have been found to be consistent origins of demeanors and enable the prediction to be restricted within specific situations under which the psychological upbringing of the respective individual has to be judged in order to enjoy the conditional relevance.
As a measure of characteristic trends, the analysts obtained a reduced set of unique characteristics that have the potential to identify the underlying intricate structure of an unique human psychology. The classification of the individuals on the grounds of the above procurement can be posed as follows;
Furthermore, it is imperative to address that the 16 governing traits has been constructed under the cumulative direction of the aforementioned classification.
In this segment of the current essay, the eminent psychoanalysts tend to devise certain indices of behaviors in order to facilitate the construction of subsequent projective experiments. These experiments are devised to develop prudent conclusions about the psychological upbringing and the corresponding personality that it manifests. There exists diverse standard experiments and systematic measures that can be employed in (Roche, Jacobson & Roche ,2017)order to obtain a measure of the unique personality. Some of them are briefly discussed below;
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): It is a projective experiment that intends to offer more reliability and legitimacy while drawing the practical scenario of a respective individual. In this experiment, an overview has been attempted to create driven by some intensely personal images and happenings of the individual and the overview has been respectively scored by some trained raters in accordance with some prevalent themes. Psychoanalysts, in this current experiment, functions under the axiom that the events that the respondents usually describe is a reliable account of their subconscious (Burnette et al. 2013).
Myers-Briggs Types Indicator (MBTI): This projective experiment has classified their respective respondents in terms of INTJs, ESTJs and ENTPs. INTJs are usually considered as intellectual and productive having original minds. They are the vectors of rich idea and purposes and typically characterized as skeptical, fastidious and obstinate. The ESTJs are usually considered as organizers since they possess logical and circumvent attitude with a decisive and analytical mind. These sort of individuals are likely to arrange and host activities. The ENTPs are usually characterized as individualistic, pioneering and versatile who are immensely attracted to autonomous projects. This sort of individuals always seek to avail the tasks of higher excellence and have been found to be resourceful and circumspect while solving challenging and complicated problems.
The Big Five Model: Due to the deficiency of legitimacy that significantly lies in the previous models, the Big five Model has been evolved in order to mitigate the drawbacks. In this course of projective experimentive, the individual respondents have been classified into five broader categories and they respectively are; Extraversion (measure of comfort level while having an encounter), Agreeableness (proclivity to defer to others), Consciousness (index of reliability), Emotional Stability (to withstand stress), Openness to experience (Liberty and novelty of judgements).
The notion of Personality and the associated empirical and scientific studies predominantly suggests a fact that the prudent and intuitive thinkers typically represent a meager percentage of the entire population. This can be cited as a statistical verification of the fact that personality is an absolute profile of certain characteristic trend that have the ability to extract the original human nature embedded in the opaque facade of apparent identity.