Human Resource Development
Purpose of this assignment: Is to assess the skills and understanding needed for planning, designing training, development & evaluate through understanding how people learn and the suitability of different training methods and initiatives.
You are shadowing a HR professional and, just finish a ‘Human Resources Development’ level 5 course. You are a member of a small UK HR consultancy firm call “People ‘R’ Us” offering advice on HR issues to small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s). “People ‘R’ Us” are bidding for a contract to be able to plan & design training & development plus evaluate any training event for Sun Count Residential Homes Limited. Sun Court (generalist provider) provide up-market care home set in acres of beautiful secluded gardens accommodation for Old Age. Admission age over 60+. 50 single rooms with ensuite WC Sun Court has never had a formal Human Resources Development function. The CEO believe that training staff is an unnecessary cost that need to be kept to a minimum. But two factors have cause the CEO to re-look at the issue of training all staff:
LO 1 & 4:
In the above scenario of People ‘R’ Us bidding for HRD work with Sun Court ltd, you are asked to write a report on: Understanding learning theories & learning styles & Understanding government –led skills development initiatives.
The report will cover the following questions exhibiting an understanding to the LO and AC as specified below:
LO 1Understand learning theories and learning styles
1.1 Compare different learning styles (AC 1.1)
1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace (AC 1.2)
1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event (AC 1.3)
LO 4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives
4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning (AC 4.1)
4.2 Explain how the development of competency movement has impacted on public & private section (AC 4.2)
4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by UK government contribute to human resources development for Sun Court Ltd (AC 4.3)
LO 2 & 3
In the above scenario People ‘R’ Us have been contracted by Sun Court ltd to plan & design training & development a range of ‘On-the job & Off- the job training & development.
LO2 Be able to plan and design training and development
2.1 Compare the training needed for staff at different levels in Sun Court Ltd (AC2.1)
2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in at Sun Court Ltd (AC 2.2)
2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training & development for training event. (AC 2.3)
LO 3 Be able to evaluate a training event
3.1 Prepare an evaluation for a training event using suitable techniques (AC 3.1)
3.2 Carry out an evaluation of a training event (AC3.2)
3.3 Review the success of the evaluation methods used (AC 3.3)
|Outcome||Evidence for the criteria to pass, merit and distinction as specified in the student feedback and contextualised.||Assessors decision||Internal verification decision. (agree, disagree)|
TASK 1 to Task 2 You are shadowing a HR professional and, just finish a ‘Human Resources Development’ level 5 course. You are a member of a small UK HR consultancy firm call “People ‘R’ Us” offering advice on HR issues to small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s). “People ‘R’ Us” are bidding for a contract to be able to plan & design training & development plus evaluate any training event for Sun Count Residential Homes Limited. Sun Court (generalist provider) provide up-market care home set in acres of beautiful secluded gardens accommodation for Old Age. Admission age over 60+. 50 single rooms with ensuite WC Sun Court has never had a formal Human Resources Development function. The CEO believe that training staff is an unnecessary cost that need to be kept to a minimum. But two factors have cause the CEO to re-look at the issue of training all staff:
|LO 1: Understand learning theories and learning |
| P1.1- Compare different learning styles||P1.1 (P,M,D)||P1.1|
|P1.2- Explain the role of learning curve & the importance of transferring learning to the workplace||P1.2|
|P1.3- Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event||P1.3|
|Contextualised Feedback for LO 1 (reflecting 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 Pass merit and distinction.)|
|IV comments towards |
|Task 2 Using the same scenario as specified above addressing the LO2 and AC 2.1 to 2.3|
|LO 2: Be able to plan and design training and development||P2.1- Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Sun Court ltd. (AC2.1)|
|P2.2- Assess the advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in Sun Court Ltd (AC 2.2)||P2.2|
|P2.3 – Use a systematic approach to plan training & development for a training event. (AC 2.3)||P2.3|
|Contextualised Feedback for LO2 (reflecting 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, Pass merit and distinction.)|
|IV comments for LO2|
|TASK 2 Using the same scenario as specified above addressing the LO3 and AC 3.1 to 3.4 |
|LO 3: Be able to evaluate a training event||P3.1- Prepare an evaluation using suitable techniques (AC 3.1)||P3.1|
|P3.2- Carry out an evaluation of a training event. (AC3.2)||P3.2|
|P3.3- Review the success of the evaluation methods used (AC 3.3)||P3.3|
|Contextualised Feedback for LO3 (reflecting 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, Pass merit and distinction.)|
|IV comments towards LO3|
|TASK 2 Using the same scenario as specified above addressing the LO4 and AC 4.1 to 4.3 |
LO 4: Understand government-led skills development initiatives
|P4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning (AC 4.1)|| P4.1|
|P4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public & private sectors. (AC 4.2)||P4.2|
|P4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiates introduced by UK government contribute to human resources development for Sun Court Ltd (AC 4.3)||P4.3|
|Contextualised Feedback for LO4 (reflecting 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, Pass merit and distinction.)|
|IV comments towards LO4 |
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Human resource development refers to the process of making employees competent by developing their ability of performing tasks efficiently. In the present study, the HR professional of “People ‘R’ Us” would develop a training and development program for the staffs of Sun Court Residential Homes Limited as, the organization never focused on the importance of carrying out a human resource development program. However, now it has become crucial for the firm to provide training to the staffs due to different factors. Hence, the study would focus on analyzing the different learning styles and theories and planning a training and development program. Further, it evaluates a training event and analyses the skill development initiatives led by government.
Task 1 (LO1 and LO4):
This particular task involves analyzing the theories and styles related to learning and the way they can be used for the staffs of Sun Court Residential Homes Limited. Further, it evaluates the importance of government initiatives related to skill development that may help in providing training of the employees of Sun Court Ltd.
For increasing the knowledge of the workers of Sun Court Ltd, the human development officer of “People ‘R’ Us” must understand and apply the learning styles appropriately. According to Armstrong and Taylor (2014), learning is connected with the concepts of skills, knowledge, behavior, preferences and values. Therefore, learning can be described as the acquisition of the above-mentioned things. This is a process pact with 3-Ws including what, how and why. There are various scholars, who have described different learning styles. For instance, David Kolb is the supporter of a certain types of learning style, whereas, Peter Honey and Alan Mumford advocated a distinct learning style.
Kolb’s model helps in understanding the different learning styles of different people. Further, it also explains the cycle of tentative learning that can be applied to all. Hence, the model acts on two levels comprising a four-stage cycle and four-type learning styles. The four stages include concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The Learning styles comprise diverging, assimilating, converging and accommodating. Similarly, the Honey and Mumford learning style describes four different learning preferences or styles comprising activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector. This model stipulates these learning approaches as the naturally preferable for individuals, who want to learn (Bratton and Gold, 2012). As stated by Boselie (2010), it is important to identify own learning style and using this style searching for opportunities to learn for increasing personal learning. There is a huge resemblance between the learning stages of Honey and Mumford and Kolb’s learning style.
Converging = Pragmatist
Assimilating = Theorist
Diverging = Reflector
Accommodating = Activist
Figure 1: Kolb’s learning style and Honey and Mumford’s learning styles
(Source: Bratton and Gold, 2012, p.63)
Becker et al. (2010) commented that most of the individuals learn using all these four factors, however, they are likely to have one or two specific traits. For example, Introverts tend to be theorist or reflector and extroverts pragmatist or activist. Therefore, in order to be efficient learners the workforce of Sun Court Ltd must improve the ability of learning in other styles ones that are unfamiliar to them. While doing this, they would be able to develop practical skills and knowledge that would help them to endow for the firm.
The learning curve is a graphical image of the shifting rate of learning in the average individual for a specified action. The curve also depicts the primary obscurity of learning something and the extent of learning after the first experience (CHUANG and Liao, 2010).
Image 1: The Learning Curve
(Source: CHUANG and Liao, 2010, p.154)
According to Brewer and Brewer (2010), learning curve pays a vital role in the whole learning process by providing the track record of the previous performance of the learners. Furthermore, learning is of no use if it is not transferred to the real life or in the workplace. Each learning style has some own purposes that cannot be achieved until it is transferred to the workplace. Hence, using the learning curve, the progress and retreat in terms of experience of the employees of Sun Court Ltd can be identified. It may also help in analyzing the impact of training or learning programs on individuals’ performance. With the help of the learning curve the main components of progress of the employees can be identified based on which, further edification policy can be taken.
Cascio and Boudreau (2010) opined that, transferring learning to the workplace adds value to the firm, which utilizes the fund allotted for the training session appropriately. Therefore, the training session arranged for the staffs of Sun Court Ltd would help them to overcome the challenges they may face while providing services to the old people of the care home. The training and development session would include some case studies that would help the learners to understand the difficulties involved in various situations and overcome those competently.
While planning a learning event it is critical to apply the functional knowledge on different types of learning theories and styles, as it is more a mental task. There are various learning theories including Behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning theory and so on those can help in designing an effective learning event for the employees of Sun Court Ltd (DeCenzo et al. 2010).
Figure 2: Learning theories
(Source: DeCenzo et al. 2010, p.96)
The Human development officer must have to identify the different learning needs and background of the workers of Sun Court Ltd while designing a learning event for them. The workers may have different psychologies, different previous knowledge that can be identified applying the Kolb’s and Honey, and Mumford’s learning styles. Apart from that, the human development officer must understand the key ideas of the different learning theories on order to develop a useful learning event. As per behaviorism, learning is explained as the external phrase of new behaviors. This is mainly focused on apparent behaviors. On the other hand, in cognitivism, knowledge is kept cognitively as signs. In this theory, learning is the method of linking those signs in a logical and impressive way. As per the social learning theory, learning occurs through sensorial experiences and observation. Simulation is the sincerest form of adulation (Delahaye, 2015).
Hence, applying these theories and styles, the designer of the learning event can fulfill all the factors including flexibility, wider scope of responsibility and improvement of the employees of Sun Courte Ltd. It would help to understand the significance of workers and organizational factors. Based on the theories, learning style is chosen considering various needs and values of the organization.
Government is the supreme part of any country, which can contribute more support and help in training, development and learning programs as compared to any private company. Hence, in this context, the role and responsibility of the government is extremely vital. The government of UK developed a policy on VET (Vocational Education and Training), which is focused on developing national quality framework, encouraging the requirement for lifelong learning. Besides, it also stimulated the demand of employers for skills. The government took initiatives for opening regionally based institutes for offering training programs (Garavan and McGuire, 2010).
However, Ferguson and Reio Jr (2010) pointed out that, VET in UK faced issues regarding the investment and commitment of the employers. Moreover, the primary level of training and development remains poor. However, with the power of reaching to a large number of people, government can prepare a method of creating a common culture among people that may help them to provide training to the workers of various institutions including the Sun Court Ltd.
By formulating a Human Resource Development policy, the government can help the companies to increase the ability of all the staffs and make them competent in their jobs. Further, government can provide fund to Sun Court Ltd to cope with the financial issues the company is facing for investing in the training program. As, the inspection from they Care Quality Commission (CQC) has become more strict, hence, the organization is bound to invest significantly in the training program in order to increase the efficiency of the staffs in providing goof quality of services (Delahaye, 2015).
Competency is considered as the capability of accomplishing any task. The capability needs some credentials that are a privilege to conclude a task effectively. The notion of competency includes the sequence of novice, experienced beginner, practitioner, knowledgeable practitioner and expert. Competency of a worker orbits through these stages and affects the tasks performed in the real workplace. Thus, improving competency movement has impact on both pubic and private sectors organizations (Gedro, 2010).
As stated by Harzing and Pinnington (2010) competency movement advocates the training related to competence as a process focusing. Such movements are employable, transferrable and competitive professional skills. The Union Learning Representatives supports social insertion, enhances basic skills and supports workplace training for promoting lifelong learning. Thus, initiating an implementing a range of training programs can help the human development officer of “People ‘R’ Us” for increasing the ability and competency of the individuals work in Sun Court Ltd so that they can provide effective services to the care users of the care home appropriately. Through the training program, employability of jobless people can also be improved.
In terms of public sector, the competency of the workers has become a matter of huge concern. A high level of ability standard must be maintained for providing useful services to the service users. There is a need of meticulous competition for the jobs in public sector and powerful training programs for making individuals more competent in their corresponding job posts. In order to maintain competitiveness, the private sector has adapted a high level of competency and hence, they deliver colossal salaries to the competent staffs. However, during the recession period, this competency level was utilized in favor of the firm against a number of competent workforces, who lost their jobs in low level of competency ground (Guest, 2011).
UK government developed various plans for the ground of human resource development. For instance, the UK Government made some institutions, which take care of these matters, are Department of Work and Pension, Department of Health and Department of Education and Skill. These institutions provide skills through Sector Skill Council for business Network. Apart from that, the Learning ad Skill Council funds for planning training programs. Thus, these government institutions can create skilled workforce for the sun Court Ltd so that it can meet the quality standard set by CQC. Moreover, the National Vocational Qualifications create standard workforce for different industries, which may help the Sun Court Ltd to get better quality workforce, which can offer good quality of care services to the care users ().
Besides, the UK Commission for Employment and Skill (UKCES) ran the UK Features Programme that contains main four objectives. First is to hold up the mutual approaches to employee development problems among employers, which helps the employers of Sun Court Ltd to identify the issues related to human resource. Thus, this program enhances creative approaches to solve the human resource development issues. It may also help to identify the reasons due to which the workforce fails to address the issues properly. Furthermore, it may help the Sun Court Ltd to recognize the current or prior issues or failures in the business system that may act as a barrier to the competitiveness of the employees. Accordingly, the firm can enhance the competitiveness of the employees effectively.
It can be summarized that human resource development is an area of key concerns for the present business organizations especially the care homes as, its services is completely based on care and services. Understanding the needs of training and development among the employees has become very crucial for maintaining the competency and ability of workers of the Sun Court Ltd so that the organization can meet the level established by CQC.
Before planning and designing a training and development for Sun Court Ltd, the HRD officer of “People ‘R’ Us” must compare the training needs of the workers at different levels. For example, the workers of the Sun Court Ltd includes management, nurses, care home assistant practitioner, carers, catering, administration, physical therapists, housekeeping and maintenance, who have different responsibilities and roles. Thus, they have different training needs. Therefore, an extensive training need analysis is required for identifying training needs of the staffs and providing training accordingly.
For example, the managers should be provided training in order to help them to increase their ability of decision-making. The nurses and cares workers should be given the training related to care work and cultural competency. At present time, the care workers have to deal patients from diverse cultural background. Therefore, it has become crucial to provide them training of increasing cultural competency so that the care worker can provide services to all the service users without any discrimination. On the other hand, the physiotherapists should be provided with the training of utilizing the contemporary machines used for physiotherapy appropriately so that optimum outcome can be achieved. Further, the caterers and the housekeeping should be given the training of maintaining cleanliness of the care homes in order to ensure a safe and healthy environment for the care users and all other stakeholders (Khan, 2010).
For providing training to different levels’ staffs of Sun Court Ltd, on-the-job and off-the-job training both can be helpful. Goldstein and Ford (2002) pointed out some of the on-the-job training methods include job instruction, job rotation, apprenticeships, and performance aid and so on. On-the-job training is the most popular and common type of training that is helpful for small businesses. Job instruction training is a structured, formalized and systematic approach that contains four stages including preparation instruction performance and follow up. Job rotation is the training process in which, individuals are exposed to various activities and fields within the firm. Apprenticeship is the training for skill trade employees that joins with on-the-job training with classroom teaching. Performance aid is a machine that helps people to perform their tasks.
Figure 3: Training methods
(Source: Goldstein and Ford, 2002, p.89)
Advantages of job rotation include improved skills and knowledge, which would be beneficial for the workers of Sun Court Ltd. Further, it offers more opportunities for career development along with high salary and job satisfaction. An overall advantage of on-the-job training is that the cost is low. Moreover, there is a larger possibility of training application for on-the-job. It includes fewer hurdles on transferring. However, on-the-job training method possesses some disadvantages too. For example, during the training, workers can be distracted, which can disrupt the services. Moreover, the trainee can harm the instrument and some potential problems may exist there (Steffen et al. 2015).
Off-the-job training can also be useful for providing training to the employees of Sun Court Ltd. This would be beneficial for the workers, as, they would get the chance of learning from outside experts or specialists. It would increase their confidence while starting their jobs. Moreover, the organization can train a large number of workers at a time. However, the company has to bear higher cost for such training. Moreover, the difference between the environments of workplace and training place can be challenging for the transfer (Werner and DeSimone, 2011).
Before developing a comprehensive training plan, it is essential to know the things that the employees must know, should know and would be good for them to know. These are useful in performing jobs efficiently. A systematic approach to plan a training event includes the following stages (Anthony et al. 2002):
Assessment stage- In the first stage, it is important to identify the needs of the organization, needs of tasks, developing objectives of training and preparing the assessment criteria for analyzing the training event. This can be done by conducting a survey with the staffs, society and guests of Sun Court Ltd. This would help to recognize the market trend, guest complaints, discipline among staffs, wastage, quality of services and the need for improvement.
Preparing plan- For Sun Court Ltd, a short time plan of 1 year would be appropriate. In order to make an effective plan, a calendar can be used to note down the training activities. All trainee must be provided with a timetable so that they can track and assess their own progress during the training period. In order to personalize the training session, strengths and weaknesses of all the trainees including nurses, therapists, professionals and others must be identified.
Setting objectives of training- The training objectives must be assessable and specific. The objectives would include, increasing the efficiency of the caregivers in terms of quality and cultural competency, meeting the quality standard of CQC, developing skills, attitudes and confidence of the care workers.
Developing training program- Here, the structure, instruction techniques and duration of the training program would be set. The required qualification of the trainers, location of the training, criteria and processes of measuring learning and achievement of the trainees would be set.
Specifying the instruction techniques- On-the-job and off-the-job trainings both would be carried out. These would include case study analysis, games, role-play, discussion, experimental exercises and self-evaluation.
Accomplishing the train plan- Here, the audience needs to be selected. Moreover, the location, time and methods such as direct or indirect communication of the training session would be set.
Training stage- In the next stage, the training event needs to be implemented after selecting the participants. Here an effective communication would be carried out between the trainers and the trainees. The trainers would use effective training methods to increase the interest of the trainees.
Evaluation stage- In the last stage, the training outcome is assessed with the help of assessment criteria set in the previous stage. The analysis would be done in three steps including immediate feedback, post-training evaluation and post-training appraisals.
Planning for future- After analyzing the outcome of the training, a modified and more effective training program would be suggested by the trainers.
Figure 4: A systematic approach of planning a training event
(Source: Anthony et al. 2002, p.152)
Analyzing the training event is necessary for measuring its success or failure. In order to make the evaluation worthy, the organization needs to select the stakeholders, who would be the part of the evaluation process. Further, the training program must be described and the key area needs to be pointed out so that the evaluation remains focused. In the next stage, the data needs to be collected for analyzing (Shuck and Wollard, 2010). Hence, for analyzing the training event carried out for Sun Court Ltd, the following techniques are used:
Observation- All the workers of the Sun Court Ltd must be observed for identifying the improvement in their performance after the training session. This help to prepare the performance report, which determines the value of the training event (Knowles et al. 2014).
Feedback- Taking feedback from both the trainee and the trainers would help in identifying the position of the training session carried out. Positive or negative feedback from the trainee and trainers would help to gauge the success of the training event (Koonmee et al. 2010).
Comparison- comparing the previous and present performance quality of the service providers would help to identify the level of improvement, which would analyze the usefulness of the training event.
Figure 5: Techniques of analyzing training event
(Source: Shuck and Wollard, 2010, p.90)
An analysis of the training event is carried out for measuring the effectiveness by mean of improving skill and knowledge of employees of Sun Court Ltd. Using the following four levels the training event has been analyzed:
Reaction- In the first level, the reaction of the participants in the training program is observed for determining their satisfaction level through the training program (Kuchinke, 2010). All the employees participated in the training program enthusiastically and they seem very contented with the lesson learnt from the event.
Learning- This stage identifies the level of progress and learning of the trainees (McWhorter, 2010). The improvement graph that was developed after the training period indicates positive outcome. Here, feedback is taken from the trainers and the learners and the outcomes were positive that proves the effectiveness of the training program.
Behavior- After receiving the training, the employees of Sun Court Ltd have become able to perform their jobs as per the company’s policy and standard.
Outcomes- The things learnt by the employees training program are now being employed in their performance, which attains satisfaction of the service users and the service providers.
Figure 6: Analysis of training event
(Source: Kuchinke, 2010, p.576)
The methods used for analyzing the training event were successful, as the feedback from the entire learner and the instructors helped in identifying the impact of the training on them. Apart from that, the feedback helped in gathering information regarding the improvement of staffs’ skill, knowledge and ability.
Further, the observation technique also helped the employer to gauge the level of performance before and after the training. Thus, they identified the extent to which the performance of the employees developed due to the training. The comparison method was useful in comparing the previous and present performance outcome of the staffs of Sun Courte Ltd after receiving the training. The training was mainly conducted for improving the personal and professional skills of the employees and thus, to comply with the regulation and standard of CQC. The methods for evaluating the training method were useful in analyzing these factors efficiently.
In conclusion, it can be concluded that every individuals has different learning styles that can be understood by applying different learning theories. Identifying individuals’ training needs and learning styles is crucial for planning and developing a comprehensive training session. It helps to improve the overall performance quality and standard of an organization. Therefore, considering all factors a training event was organized for Sun Court Ltd by the HRD officer of “People ‘R’ Us” so that the organization can meet the required quality standard in their care home.