Understanding Positive And Negative Concept Of Communication In Community: Assessment Answer

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Question :

The essay question

Which communication theories that you have researched and applied, provide most insight into understanding the dynamics of the observed event?

Draw on the materials and subject matter of Module One and the skills developed through Module Two. With reference to three communication theories (or concepts, or aspects of theories), analyse the communication event you have observed. In your essay compare and contrast the usefulness of the selected communication theories / concepts for analysing the event. Reference the essay correctly (using in-text referencing as well as a list of references at the end of your essay), in Harvard style using the SCU Library online Harvard Referencing Guide.

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Answer :



The essay introduces the means of communication to make a society efficient in terms of harmony and function. The purpose of the essay is to understand the concept of communication in a community. The essay deals with the types of communication and models based on those types. The essay also deals with the negative and positive interaction and their effects. Linear involves the way of communication in a single dimension. Interactive is the capability to influence one another. Transactional refers to the act of transacting between groups. 


Communication is referred to as the way to interact with people in the form of words or gestures. Communication is an effective way for individuals to fulfil primary purposes such as organising, planning, controlling and leading (Nagy, and Neff, 2015). The building block of a successful person is based on effective communication.

There are two types of communication non-verbal as well as verbal. Verbal communication refers to the use of speeches to share messages between people. Non-verbal communication states the use of gestures such as smiling, widening of eyes and frowning among others to communicate the message to other individuals (Mavridis, 2015).

Application of model

The elements in the process of communication can be described within three proposed models of communication or interaction – 

The linear model – primarily the communication occurring between individuals over phone or text messages is known as the linear model of communication (Petronio, 2016). The model consists of three steps a source of the message, sending of the message and the receiver of the message. The source of the message comprises of the individual who is trying to send a message or information to another person (Boshkovska et al., 2017. The sending of the message refers to the medium by which the message is being transferred to the other person, and the receiver of the message is the individual on another side of the phone who receives the information. The model is a non-visual based communication model. 

The interactive model – the model refers to the person being only the receiver or the sender of the information. This model is a two-way process of communication which emphasises that the information passes from the sender to the receiver or the receiver to the sender. The model of communication can be both verbal as well as non-verbal (Blakar, 2018). The essential element of the interactive model is feedback. The feedback does not take place during the message but after the message has been passed (Cornelissen, 2015). Often the interactive model has been criticised due to its basis that a person acts as a receiver while other person acts as a sender however in the real world experience individuals can act as sender and receiver in a single moment.

The transactional model – the model refers to the concurrent receiving as well as sending the information in a communication event. The process of communication in the transactional model is considered to be mutual, and both the receiver and the sender are responsible for the effectiveness in the means of communication (Barnlund, 2017). The model of communication requires individuals to be familiar with the influence of the message on each other. The current message is built on the previous one, and there is a presence of certain interdependency among the mechanism of communication.

Evaluation of theories

Noise is referred to as the unintended medium of communication based on the linear model (Gallois, and Giles, 2015). Specifically, there are four kinds of noise, semantic noise, psychological noise, physical noise as well as physiological noise. Semantic noise example can be "dilated conjunctively changes" which is a term in the medical community bearing no meaning whatsoever (Ge, Han, and Yang, 2017). Psychological noise example is participants listening to the views of the Ku Klux Klan and people protesting against those views are an example of physical noise. Psychological noise example can be the person speaking when hungry or ill.

To exemplify the interaction model the conversation between a mother and her daughter takes place where the mother is telling a story to her daughter but in the same reading her daughter's non-verbal behaviour like if she is laughing or saddened and based on that the mother modifies her message to the daughter.

To exemplify the third model of communication an instance can be taken as when a girl asks his boyfriend about his background and knows that he has a prison background then she must work out a way to put his past into a point of view. The transactional model dictates shared meaning of the relationship by both the individuals.

Effective communication can resolve most of the struggles in society. Researchers have often centred their work on satisfying and healthy relationships built by communication (Floyd, Hesse, and Generous, 2017). But not all forms of communication are pleasant; there is a particular side to a negative communication also. Negative communication includes sarcasm, verbal aggression, humiliation, and manipulation. Negative communication can also include behaviours which are less harmful such as teasing and name-calling. Men, as well as women from the LGTBQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual and Queer) community, often face these kinds of humiliation and torture almost in their daily life (Balaji, Khong, and Chong, 2016). Some negative communication can also be racist and discriminatory against a specific population. Individuals using these kinds of communication to interact with others may feel it be harmless, but it affects the psychology of the individuals on the receiving end.  Therefore it is required that communication should be positive between every human being thus making it useful and efficient.


The essay concludes that effective communication can be of two types namely verbal and non-verbal. Communication can be classified based on three models namely linear model of communication, transactional model and interactive model of communication. The essay also discusses the negative communication and its impact on different individuals in society like humiliation and torture in the minds of the people.


 Basic model of communication

Figure 1: Basic model of communication

Interactive model of communication

Figure 2: Interactive model of communication