Whole Tourism System Model: Tourism Of Sri Lanka

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Question :


Assessment essay

This assessment brings together all the topics covered in this unit and gives you the opportunity to apply what you have learned to a destination of your choice.


The task is to demonstrate you can critically consider and apply the theories and models addressed in this unit to a destination, i.e. to link the theories with the actual practice and/or practical operations of tourism occurring at a particular tourism destination, place or region.

You will do this within the structure of an essay arguing whether or not (and/or how) the Whole Tourism System model (Leiper 2004 cited in Weaver and Lawton 2014, i.e. from withinyour text book) assists in better understanding the tourism development, operations and

Management at your chosen destination

By now you will appreciate how complex tourism is, and how many sectors, industries, services, environments etc. that it involves, impacts and is impacted by to keep functioning.

You will also have learnt what you need to consider as a future tourism manager. Leiper's(2004) Whole Tourism System model was presented as a way to help systematically identify, understand and manage each of the critical aspects (or elements) of tourism. Do you think it's useful or helpful in doing this? Hence, the essay question to address...

Essay Question: Does Leiper's (2004) whole tourism system model help to better understand tourism development and management at a destination?


1. Identify a tourist destination region (TDR) that you are familiar with or have recently visited, or are particularly interested in. Your TDR will be used as a basis to apply, compare and contrast relevant theories and models addressed in the unit to the practical aspects of

Tourism development, operations and management.

2. Your essay should commence with an introduction that identifies the TDR, the purpose of this assessment, and the theories and models that are being applied, compared and/or contrasted with the practical aspects of the TDR (i.e. the weekly topics addressed in this unit). It should also clearly state your essay stance or argument regarding the usefulness of

Leiper's (2004) Whole Tourism System model in better understanding the practical aspects of tourism development, operations and/or management at the destination.

3. The body of your essay then needs to be written in support of your argument. This is done by linking and critically applying the other tourism theories and models (discussed in the unit and text book) relevant to the elements of Leiper's (2004) Whole Tourism System model and the unit's topics with regard to:

• providing an overview of how tourism has developed in your TDR (ensure you link your discussion to theories introduced in Topic 5 – Places in tourist itineraries)

• identifying and explaining what factors make the TDR attractive to visitors (ensure you relate your discussion to theories introduced in Topic 4 – People as tourists and Topic 8

– Tourist attractions). Your discussion should identify and explain the main visitor markets that visit your TDR, or the region or a similar destination (support your discussion with relevant visitation statistics if possible)

• identify and explain the role of a specific tourism or hospitality industry in your TDR –for example, conferences, events, tour operations, accommodation, restaurants (refer to Topic 9 – Tourism industries). Note: you would benefit from selecting an industry/sector relevant to your degree program, for example, Conventions and Events, or International Tourism & Hospitality Management, or others if applicable

• explain if the principles of sustainable tourism are evident within your TDR (ensure you relate your discussion to theories introduced in Topic 6 – Whole tourism systems and Topic 7 – Sustainable tourism)

• conclude with an overview of the main findings of your essay in support of your essay argument or stance.

4. You are required to include and critically use at least 4 relevant research/academic articles(i.e. these can be the ones used in Assessment 2, and/or can include academic books orother journal articles relevant to your essay discussion and TDR). You also need to include specific references about your TDR if possible, or a comparable destination in the form of industry or web sources, e.g. WTO, regional tourism statistics, national or local government tourism/research information.

PLEASE NOTE: the text book MUST be relevantly used as a reference (i.e. the textbook is expected to be used frequently in this essay as a reference for definitions,theories, models and other supporting information), and at least 2 of the unit Readings

must also be included (these are provided in the unit material each week) to avoid penalty marks (see below). This means a minimum of 7 references are required to gain a pass (up to a credit) for this specific marking criterion, and approximately 10 references or more(including frequent use of the text book) relevantly used will aim for a higher mark in this


5.IMPORTANT NOTE – 10% will be deducted from your final mark if the textbook and 2 unit Readings are not included relevantly as references (your lecturer will discuss this with you, or feel welcome to seek information if starting this assessment early).

6. In-text referencing and a reference list are required in the Harvard Style as per the SCULibrary's online Harvard Referencing Guide, available at: http://libguides.scu.edu.au/harvard.

7. Assignment reflection and Turnitin Report – attach a copy of your Turnitin Orginality Report for this assignment and provide a 100 to 200-word reflection about how your research, study, referencing and/or career skills may have been enhanced through this

Assignment and/or the unit overall.

Note: please do not approach the management or staff of tourism and hospitality organizations involved in the TDR that you have selected for this assessment. This assessment requires you to personally consider the TDR and conduct desk-top research to relate the tourism practice at the place with the theories introduced in this unit. But definitely discuss

And share your ideas and resources with your lecturers and fellow students.

Academic Skills Quick Guides are available on MySCU to help with your essay writing skills,but also make sure to view the recordings and supporting information about how to do this assessment as provided on this unit's MySCU site, and ask your lecturer if unsure about anything.

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Answer :

Does Leiper’s (2004) Whole Tourism System Model help to understand tourism development and management at a destination better?


Tourism is considered the travel, especially for the pleasure or business. To adequately understand the development of the tourism sector the country Sri Lanka is being discussed. Sri Lanka is an island with the most attractive tourist spots and historical activities that have the potential to attract tourist all over the world. The paper is based on the whole tourism system model for understanding the tourism and the attraction of Sri Lanka. The paper also discusses the various theories and models that are suitable for the development of tourism sector in the country. The paper will discuss the development of tourism in Sri Lanka then on the factors that attract tourist. The paper will also show the role of the specific tourism industry and the sustainable tourism at Sri Lanka.

Development of tourism in Sri Lanka 

Tourism in the country like Sri Lanka is developing for centuries as they have numerous popular places which are considered to be the big attraction for the travellers. The country is experiencing the new record visitors over the years, and for that, the tourism industry is mostly focused on the eco-friendliness. The tourism industry of Sri Lanka concentrate on the quality of their service rather than the quantity (Leiper, 2004). The itineraries of Sri Lanka tourism is being prepared for enabling visitors to explore the maximum number of attraction in the country. The itineraries are planned most suitably and effectively that helps the tourist to explore the country and its beauty (Kumar, and Stauvermann, 2016). Each of the itineraries in Sri Lanka consists of the series of experiences as well as activities that are surrounded by one attraction and even accessible from one location. The period that is generally allocated for the each of the tours is considered to be within 7 to 11 days.

The country is having some of the most attractive itineraries where the tourist can get the real attraction of the country. One of the most attractive itineraries is the Untamed Sri Lanka where the tourist can experience the wild and untamed natural wonders. The itineraries also consist of the Heritage Sri Lanka then the Northern Sri Lanka and the rejuvenating Sri Lanka (Backer, and Hing, 2017). The tourism in Sri Lanka is considered to be the third largest export earner in the economy. The growth of the visitors within the country is unprecedented with the average of more than 22 percent year on year (Leiper, 2004). For the year 2015, nearly 1.8 million visitors came to the country and stayed for almost 10 days. The tourism destination is one of the most popular places for international tourist in term of world visit.

Explanation regarding the attractiveness of the destination

Sri Lanka is one of the most attractive tourism destinations in term of their itineraries and also the service that is being provided by the tourism industry. The country has numerous reason and factors for the attraction of tourist all over the world. The best reason for the attraction of people is the diversity, people, cultural heritage, wildlife and food (Leiper, 2004). Tourist gets their best option in the tourism industry for the attraction of people. The situation and the attractiveness of the place are highly described by the help of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs theory which shows the physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. This theory indicates that the destination has all the aspect of fulfilling the requirements to the tourist with their itineraries (Aslam, 2016). The places and the attraction of Sri Lanka help to achieve the self-actualization need of the tourist which makes the place even more attractive.

The Crompton’s motivation model show the various push factors and the pull factors that act towards the tourist. In Sri Lanka, the push and the pull factors are maximum where the push factors are an escape, relaxation, regression, and self-exploration which the tourist can achieve in the country. The primary pull factor of the country is the cultural heritage of Sri Lanka which eventually help to attract the tourist. The theory of Springboard of Jafari shows that the springboard metaphor is the way that deals with the six steps within the process of tourism. The entire cultural activity of the country and the tourism facilities help to provide the best service to the tourist by fulfilling their needs. It is the fact that the country has the most effective and valuable itineraries which eventually help to attract the tourist from all over the world (Lee, 2013). The Whole Tourism system model shows the various tourism activities that are being performed within the destination for the attraction of people. In the WTS there are five elements, and they are one tourist, one tourist generating place, one tourist destination, one transit route and one tourism industry (Leiper, 2004). In term of Sri Lanka the destination fulfil all the elements of WTS for providing one of the most attractive places in the world.

Role of the specific tourism industry at Sri Lanka

The specific tourism industry of Sri Lanka that provides a vast impact on the tourism factor of the country is the hotel industry. The hotel industry provides the accommodation and even the tour operation to the tourist for providing them the best and the most suitable place to explore the beauty of the country (Bec, McLennan, and Moyle, 2016). It is the fact that the tourism industry is one of the complex industry where numerous business and industries are linked to providing the best quality service to the people. From the view of Leiper, it can be seen that the tourism industry as the massive entity that supports all the tourism idea that is based on economic and political. The tourism is generally carried out for the recreational as well as the leisure purpose of the tourist all over the world (Fernando, Bandara, and Smith, 2016). In this situation, the hotel industries are the most crucial and the vital factor for providing the facilities regarding the recreation then entertainment, meeting and even for the business transmission. It is one of the best accommodation options for the tourist in Sri Lanka.

The hotel industry provides hospitality which reflects the cultural heritage and the cultural factor of the country with accommodation, food, drinks, and hospitality of people (Prakash et al., 2018). The number of international tourists is gradually developing over the years, and for that, it becomes essential to maintain the hospitality service all over the country. The very first phase in the tourism industry is to get a suitable place for staying, and the hotel is one of the best options for this process. In Sri Lanka, most of the hotel is entirely related to the tradition and provide traditional foods as well as service to the tourist (Wang, and Ap, 2013). In term of economic development, the hotel industry also plays a vital role as the tourist generally stay in the hotel for the time of their expedition. Tourism is one of the best ways to maintain peace as well as stability in the country, and this condition hospitality is the best option that is generally provided by the hotel industry in Sri Lanka. 

Explanation regarding the principle of sustainable tourism at Sri Lanka 

The successful, as well as sustainable tourism industry, has the tendency to build from the interconnected as well as complementary regional and local destination (Leiper, 2004). The whole tourism system model has a vital process regarding the sustainable development of the country in term of tourism. The UNWTO indicator in the sustainable factor of Sri Lanka tourism shoe that the development of sustainable tourism in the country support for the sector to develop and attract numerous people all over the world (Hede, 2008). The country needs to maintain their sustainable developed for the improvement of the business process and working function within the field. It is the fact that the entire business process has the vital and the most suitable working attraction for the people.  

The sustainable tourism triangle in term of the sustainable tourism in Sri Lanka shows the balance within the environment than social as well as the economic (Buultjens, Ratnayake, and Gnanapala, 2016). The country did not have systematically as well as proactively engaged within the planning destination. The sustainable tourism triangle is highly essential for balancing the environment and the social activity for the improvement of the business process in the tourism sector, balancing the use of environmental resources as well as the economic benefits of tourism (Hao et al., 2016). Restoring the economic growth of the community is also essential for the improvement of valuable activity within the field. Sri Lanka needs to enhance their sustainability in term of tourism and develop the practical function within the area.


The tourism industry is one of the crucial and critical business processes all over the world. Sri Lanka is one of the most attractive tourist places where numerous people travel every year to explore the country. The itineraries of the country are also attractive with the best accommodation and the food facilities provided to the people. The hotel industry of Sri Lanka plays a vital role in the attraction of tourist place within the country. The paper also concludes that the tourism sector of Sri Lanka developed sustainability and working function within the market for the betterment of the place.