Q1.(a) Discuss the Mother-Baby Packageincluding its principles and the Four Pillars of Safe Motherhood.Why should the strategic interventions of the package be delivered through primary health care, and be based on greater equity for women?
(b) What is Task-Shifting in maternal and new-born care?Under what circumstances is task shifting recommended? What might be the questions asked when attempting task-shifting in various situations?
Q2. Discuss the various aspects of the health of indigenous women with particular reference to Australia. How does the health of Australian indigenous women compare with that of women in developed and developing countries?
Q3. Discuss, with appropriate diagrams, the perpetuation of ill-health from birth to adulthood among females and the vicious cycle of malnutrition among girls and women in developing countries. Give examples where possible.
End of Section A
Q4. Design an intervention to reduce Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs) in a country of your choice. What biological, social and behavioural risk factors would you take into account in designing the intervention? Give reasons for your answer.
Q5. What phases of delay might pregnant women in developing countries encounter in reaching a health facility? Answer the question by discussing the factors influencing each phase of delay. What measures should be taken to minimise each phase of delay? Support your answers with appropriate examples, where possible.
Q6. Discuss, with examples the intermediate and distant factors that are common to both maternal mortality and child mortality. Use the information gathered and discussed by you, to design an integrated framework for analysing the determinants of maternal mortality and child mortality. You may use the frameworks proposed by McCarthy and Maine (maternal morality), and by Mosley and Chen (child survival). In the integrated framework that you have designed, explain how the distant and the immediate factors affect pregnancy outcomes and child birth outcomes.
“Discuss the various aspects of the health of indigenous women with particular reference to Australia. How does the health of Australian indigenous women compare with that of women in developed and developing countries?”
The purpose of this section is to provide understanding regarding the various aspect of the health of indigenous women of Australia. This part will also discussion regarding the comparison of indigenous women health to the other women of the developing and the developed countries.
Various aspect of Health of Indigenous women
The Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander women did not have the good health condition. Most of the indigenous women suffer the health problem due to their lifestyle then the racism and also due to the exposure to violence (Chmielowska, & Fuhr, 2017). There is the various aspect that is associated with the poor health condition of the indigenous people of Australia. One of the most significant issues is the cut down of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from society. They did not get proper medical facilities and also their lifestyle involves the use of drugs, smoking, and all other harmful activities.
Nutrition is one of the most significant factors which is the primary reason for the poor health condition of the indigenous women. It is the fact that the aboriginal women of Australia did not get proper nutritious food and for that their immune system is also low (Ashman et al., 2016). The body weight of the people is another aspect which provides how healthy the human can be. It can be seen that most of the indigenous women have obese and this is due to the consumption of tobacco and alcohol which in the future leads to deadly disease. The use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs are high among the indigenous women who are another cause for the poor health condition.
Comparison of indigenous women health with other women
The indigenous women faced poor health condition mostly due to the massive usage of tobacco and alcohol. The contrast between that aboriginal woman and the other women of the developing and the developed countries is primarily between the health condition and also the medical facilities (Chmielowska, & Fuhr, 2017). It is the fact that not like developed countries, but the developing countries also have excellent facilities for medical treatment which is almost easy accessible for women. In the case of indigenous women they are unable to get the medical facilities, and one of the primary factors for this is the racism and the discrimination of the aboriginal people (Esgin, Johnston, Rowley, de Villarreal, & Newton, 2017). In most of the situation, it can be seen that the indigenous women face a maximum number of physical harassment as compared to that with the non-indigenous women.
Cancer is considered to be one of the primary aspects that leads to the burden of disease within the country. The indigenous women are highly attracted towards cancer and especially the breast cancer which most of the time lead to the death of the women. The poor hospitalization system for the aboriginal women leads to all the health issues (Gausia et al., 2015). Women of other developing and the developed countries are well educated, and also they can quickly get access to the medical help, but for the aboriginal women, the condition is very pathetic. They did not get a proper education, and for that, they are unaware of numerous facts and the situation that is going wrong with them. During pregnancy, the indigenous women did not get proper treatment and also medicine and for that most of their child have the lower rate of life expectancy (Ashman et al., 2016). Most of the teenage indigenous girl is pregnant which cause a massive issue in the health of the girl and the child as compared to the situation of adolescent girls in other countries.
It is concluded that the health condition of indigenous women is pathetic as compared that with the other women all over the world. It is also completed that they did not have the medical facilities or fit lifestyle to maintain their health condition.
“What phases of delay might pregnant women in developing countries encounter in reaching a health facility? Answer the question by discussing the factors influencing each phase of delay. What measures should be taken to minimize each phase of delay? Support your answers with appropriate examples, where possible.”
The purpose of this section is to provide a view on the phases of delay that is primarily encountered by the pregnant women in the developing countries. This section will also discuss regarding the various factors influencing each of the aspects of delay and even the measures that could be considered to improve the phases of delay within the developing countries.
The phase of delay encountered by the pregnant women in developing countries
The steps of delay faced by the pregnant women within the developing countries might lead to the death of the mother or the baby. In general, there is three phase of delay that is mostly experienced by the pregnant women in the developing countries that primarily create an impact on the reaching as well as receiving the proper care. The first phase of delay is the recognition of the problem along with the decision to seek attention. This is the first phase of suspension which is mostly faced by the pregnant women from the backward class in the developing countries (Reducing the Burden of the Three Delays on Maternal Health in Timor-Leste, 2018).
The second phase of delay is the reaching to the facility that also on time. It is one of the most significant aspects of suspension as reaching the right facility and on time is a type of miracle in the developing countries where the transport system and other factor are not highly developed. The third phase of delay is the receiving of the adequate as well as the appropriate care (Bohren et al., 2014). All the three stages of delay are associated with each other in the developing countries. It can be seen that to provide the most suitable and effective healthcare to the pregnant women these phases of delay needs to rectify.
Factor influencing each phase of the delay
The steps of delay took place due to the numerous factors that are associated with the people and the surroundings in the developing countries. The first phase of suspension is the deciding to seek care ad this took place when the pregnant women and the family member are unaware of the pregnancy complications (Barnes-Josiah D, 2018). The primary factor of this phase is the low level of education among the people, and even the low status of the women is another factor for the first phase of delay. Other elements of the suspension are the poor understanding of the risk factor and the complication, traditional or the cultural belief and even the misunderstanding regarding the appropriate time of intervention. The second phase of delay is the reaching of care facilities on time which is essential in the situation of emergency. If the patient is not reached to the appropriate care on time, then it might lead to the death of the patient (Chhabra, 2014). The primary factors that are associated with the second phase of delay for the pregnant women are the distance or the location of the source of care. Another factor associated with the delay is the transportation facilities and the cost and also the time taken by transportation.
This is because most of the developing countries did not have proper rood transport system and or the vehicle that would provide medical help to the pregnant women. Reaching the exact location that also on time in most of the cases become much difficult and for that, the death of pregnant women and their babies are quite common in the developing countries (Calvello, Skog, Tenner, & Wallis, 2015). The third phase of delay faced by the pregnant women are the receiving of care, and due to the delay in this phase also the death or the severe issue took place. The primary factor regarding the third phase delay is the lack of the trained as well as the skilled medical staff; also the insufficient number of staff members within the hospital sector is another factor. Furthermore, the other factors that cause the third phase of delay are the limited availability of the medicine and the equipment, the poor condition of the facilities and even the poor treatment to the pregnant women (Sauer, 2015). These factors effectively create serious health issues within the pregnant women and the babies if they survive despite the three phase of delays.
Measures to be taken for minimising each phase of the delay
Reducing the stage of suspension is the essential factor within the developing countries to provide suitable medical facilities to the women and the babies. The first phase of suspension needs proper education, birth preparedness and also knowledge regarding the pregnancy complication to the patient. It is essential that the physician and the doctors to provide appropriate expertise to the women and their family regarding all the phases of pregnancy and their complication to the women (Sauer, 2015). Education, in this case, is highly essential for the development of the situation faced by the women in the developing countries. It is the fact that with the help of practical knowledge regarding the complication phase and other position in the pregnancy would help the women and her family to decide at the right time. The second phase of delay is associated with the transportation then financial and all other aspects for getting the care (Barnes-Josiah D, 2018). In this phase, the measures that need to be considered is to make the transportation system much more comfortable for pregnant women.
It is the duty and the responsibility of the government to keep the roadways in good condition and also have the necessary accessibility of the ambulance so that anytime and anywhere the pregnant women can get the facility. The financial barrier can also be reduced by providing free or low-cost medical facilities to pregnant women (Calvello, Skog, Tenner, & Wallis, 2015). It is highly essential to save the life of mother and child and for that reducing the medical cost, and other price needs to be considered in the developing countries. The third phase of delay is associated with the medical facilities then the equipment and all the facilities that would provide medical care to the pregnant women. In this process, the measures need to be taken by increasing the number of medical staff in the hospital sector. It is also essential to provide the skilled and trained medical personnel to take care for the pregnant women in the hospital sector (Chhabra, 2014). During pregnancy numerous complication can take place and deal with them it is essential for the hospital sector to have effective and suitable medical facilities and treatment for pregnant women.
It is concluded that the three phase of delay is the primary factor for the complication faced by the pregnant women in the developing countries. It is also found that the government and the people need to take considerable steps in education and transportation and even the medical facilities for providing the most suitable and effective health care system for pregnant women. Moreover, it can be seen that due to the phases of delay the death of the mother and the babies can also take place.