Unit 14: working with and leading people
BTEC Level 5 HN Diploma in Business (QCF)
Section 1 (LO 1)
Be able to use recruitment, selection and retention procedures
You work in the Human resource department for an airline and you have been asked to prepare the relevant documentation for you to select and recruit a new member of staff for the position of cabin crew.
Answer to include: the preparation of job analysis, job description, person specifications. (1.1)
Assess the impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations that are needed for the recruitment and selection process
You will also need to assess the impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations that are needed to be considered for the recruitment and selection process for the airline, (1.2)
You will be asked to take part in the selection process what are the selection techniques you would suggest that are best suited to recruit the ideal candidate.
Answer to include: CV, references, simulations, interviews, application forms. (1.3)
How have you contributed to the selection process to make it more effective (1.4)
Section 2 (LO2)
Understand the styles and impact of leadership
An organisation to be used with declining sales as an example to refer to in this section.
Explain the skills and attributes needed for leadership (2.1) Explain What is the difference between management and Leadership (2.2)
With the use of the different situations below please compare the appropriate leadership style needed for each situation.
Situations to include a crisis, change, implementation of a new strategy to improve the declining sales.
(Please note the comparison of different styles is needed) (2.3)
For a business facing a loss of sales describe what methods you would use to motivate the staff to achieve an increase in sales. (2.4)
Note : work for feedback( task 2) due week 8
Power point written Presentation (12- 14 slides) This must be supported with reader notes, the reader notes (950 words) must be related to the slides you prepare.
Section 3 (LO 3)
You work for an airline and you have been asked to prepare a report as outlined below.
Assess the benefits of team working in the airline and the team should be the cabin crew consisting of at least six members. (3.1)
Demonstrate working in a cabin crew team as a leader and member towards specific goals, dealing with any conflict or difficult situations that you may have faced of recent. (3.2)
As a leader of the cabin crew review the effectiveness your team has achieved in their recent goal of increasing customer satisfaction. (3.3)
Section 4 (LO 4)
You work for an airline and you have been asked to prepare a report as outlined and to be able to assess the work and development needs of individuals.
What factors will you need to consider in planning and monitoring and assessment of work performance for the cabin crew.
Answer to include: Learning needs diversity , age groups , cultural difference (4.1)
How can you plan and deliver the assessment to ensure needs of the cabin crew is developed.
Answer to include: Motivation, delegation , communication (4.2)
What methods can you suggest that the airline should use to evaluate the success of the assessment process
Answer to include: Appraisals, feedback, promotions, disciplinary (4.3)
Note : work for feedback( task 4) due week 13
Word length: 950 words ( Report )
The assignment and activities selected will enable you to develop your academic potential and skills.
Such as reasoning, research, writing and referencing.
The work you produce will also promote your employability and practical skills and confidence.
WORKING WITH AND LEADING PEOPLE
This assignment intended to describe the working with and leading people in the Tarom airline, which is one of the Romanian airline organizations. Human resource is one of the key factors that help any organization to achieve the competitive advantage. Therefore, organization must pay their attention towards the development of the workforce so they can motivate them effectively and achieve their organizational objective. In any organization innovative, skilled and efficient labour is very much important, so it is important for any organization to pay their attention towards hiring efficient human resource.
As stated by Costen (2012), recruitment can be defined as the process to attract different capable candidates to be employed within an organization. On the other hand, selection process is used to identify the most appropriate candidates from a pool of candidates. Recruitment and selection process are the interconnected process in order to hire any employee (Doornenbal et al. 2012). The current recruitment process will be done for a cabin crew employee for Tarom airline.
Tarom airline require a cabin crew employee for their organisation. As a cabin crew the candidate, have to provide effective customer service to the passengers. The selection process would be done based on the CV, screening of application, reference checking, face-to-face interview and medical test.
|Job title: Cabin crew|
If you have degree in any subject and have a good health and appearance then you are ready to apply for this job. The main task would be providing effective services to the customer while they board to the flight.
duties and responsibilities:
A degree in any subject but the preference is a degree in the nursing, tourism, leisure or travel
As a cabin crew employee, you always need to work in a pressurized environment and you should have self-help mentally during your work.
The candidates must be healthy and fit during the working time.
The person specification of the Tarom airline should be based on the Rodger 7 stages plan, are as follows:
The candidate needs to be healthy as well as fit for the respective position and they should have a good appearance.
Should have degree in any subject should have intelligence to deal with customers effectively.
Candidate need to have proficiency in different language, especially in the English.
Candidate should have the IQ to deal with the passengers.
Should have effective interests regarding the travelling in any part of globe when asked
Candidate needs to be a good team member and as a team member they should have the capability to manage the passengers
As stated by Nguyen (2013), ethics is the most important part of any business and it is also applied in the recruitment and selection process. Ethics generally identified right and wrong in the action made by human based on different circumstances. In the time of recruitment and selection, personal virtue of any people generally helps the human resource manager to select the appropriate candidate for the post. During this recruitment and selection, the human resource manager of the Tarom airline should follow different ethical code of practice like providing equal opportunities to all of the candidates and they should be selected based on their capabilities and should not be selected based on their race, religion, age and sex (van Dijk et al. 2012). During the recruitment and selection, HR should offer the same pay structure to all candidates that have applied for the cabin crew posts and HR should follow all of the policy that eliminates discrimination in organization.
There are several regulatory and legal frameworks that can help Tarom airline to follow the effective ethical code of practice are as follows:
Disability discrimination Act 1995:
According to the Disability discrimination Act 1995, it is unlawful to discriminate people due to their disabilities in the connection with the employment or the provision of services or goods, facilities. Therefore, according to this act, Tarom airline should discriminate those candidates who have some type of disabilities and they should hire disable person if they can do their job perfectly.
Race relation act 1976:
This law protects the employees against any kind of discrimination on the racial grounds. As stated by Arulrajah (2015), racial ground can be defined as the nationality, colour, race, national origins and ethnicity. Therefore, according to Race relation act 1976, Tarom airline should provide equal opportunities to all of the candidates that have come for the interview and they should not discriminate them based on their race.
Sex discrimination act 1975:
According to the sex discrimination act 1975, any employee cannot be discriminated in their organization based on their gender or any candidates cannot be treated differently during the recruitment or selection (Treweek et al. 2013). Therefore, according to this act, Tarom airline is liable to provide equal opportunities to the candidates during the recruitment and selection process irrespective of their sex.
Equal pay act 1970:
According to this act, every employee has the right to get equal salaries who are working in a same organization and same posts. Therefore, according to this law, Tarom airline is liable to provide equal salary to all of their cabin crew employees and they should hire candidates with equal pay structure.
As a human resource manager,I was a member in the recruitment board and was an active member in the selection process. There are a number of stages in the selection process of the cabin crew. After advertising, the vacancy along with the person specification and job specification Tarom airline accept the CV from the applicants. We receive applications from the job portal section of their website. After this different HR personnel, of our organization scrutinized the receiving application. Then we contact the candidates who have essential or desirable qualification or experiences. Then we show them a presentation slide, which is my task. In this task, I mainly describe what the job responsibilities of a cabin crew are and how they can develop their services to our organization. Then we check the references of all of the candidates so we can know about the candidates with details. After that, we conduct a personal interview for the candidates. The interview board mainly include 5 members including me, we generally asks several question in those round like their previous job, family, future planning, their interests so we can assess their capability. After that, we ask their expectation regarding the job and if we think that the employee is effective for our organization then we send them to the next round of selection process that is medical tests. In these tests, our doctor checks the health of the candidate and check the candidate is compatible for our organization or not.
This selection process includes only one round interview and it does not include any kind of test that can measure the reasoning capability of the employee so it is one of the biggest disadvantages of this process. This selection process has advantages too; through this selection process, we can understand the behaviour, attitude, and perception of the candidates that can help us to find the most appropriate employee for our cabin crew position.
In the selection process, as a member of recruitment board I have asked those candidates to demonstrate their strength and weaknesses. There were others step also in which organization observe the candidate is suitable for the job or not. As stated by Arulrajah (2015), communication is one of the major things in the modern days by which any employee communicate customers and fulfil their needs. Therefore, I only checked the communication skills of the employee but I did not ask the candidates any question regarding how they can communicate with the customers and how effectively they can satisfy the need of the customers. These questions are important because, cabin crew job is totally based on providing effective services to the customers. As an active member of the interview panel, it is not ethical to make all of the decision by myself. Therefore, before taking any rather decision regarding the selection of the employee, it is important to consult with the other members in the interview panel. The main consultation with the panel member should be based on the questions that need to be asked to every candidates and the way by which any candidate should answer the question. In this way, my contribution in the selection process can be improved.
Trait theory of leadership generally sought the personality, physical, social and intellectual traits that differentiate the leaders from the non-leaders. According to the trait theory, there are several skills, which are required for any leaders are intelligence, creativity, persuasive, organized, fluent on communication skills, socially skilled, conceptual skilled, knowledgeable about their work, effective administrative skills Electra (O'Reillyet al. 2010). There are several traits that any leader should have they are like adaptable to any situation, assertive, cooperative, self-confident, effective stress taking capabilities, decisive, energetic, dominant, effective knowledge regarding the roles and responsibility and achievement oriented Electra. There are no universal traits, which can predict leadership in different situations. Trait of the leaders of Tarom airline can helps them to assume the weaknesses in any employee.
Many people are getting confused to understand the main purpose of the management and leadership. Leaders generally making other believes that they should actively involve in the organization so they can achieve the business related goals, mission and vision. On the other hand, managers of Tarom airline ensure that the day-to-day activity is conducting by the employees effectively and they are generally associated with the administration-based jobs (Galpin and Lee Whittington, 2012). Leaders generally create followers and helps employees to understand what is wrong and what is right. They generally lead people in Tarom airline in that way by which employee can achieve the organizational goals most effectively. On the other hand, managers instruct people what they have to do without showing how they can do that.
Leaders generally focus on the people and develop their emotions so they can do the task in most effective way. On the other hand, manager of Tarom airline focuses on the structure as well as systems. Leaders develop the capacity of employees and inspire them so they can obtain the most effective results. On the other hand, managers control the system and people and they mainly focus on the structure as well as systems (Morrill, 2010). Leaders and managers act in the same way in Tarom airline to achieve the same goals but they achieve that goal ion different styles and approach.
Democratic leaders are most important in the modern business scenario where the employees are considered as the asset of any organization. As stated by Boehe and Cruz (2010), democratic leadership style is the type of leadership in which the leaders involve employees in more participative role for taking decision-making. In this kind of leadership, group members are encourages sharing their opinions, idea with the leaders and helps leader to make the most effective decision. This leadership strategy is applicable in those contexts where creativity is important. Democratic leaders should have some specific traits including competence, courage, intelligence, honesty, creativity Electra. Democratic leaders inspire the trust among the member and helps employee to enjoy their job. Therefore, in order to motivate employee in Tarom airline they should hire democratic leaders in their organization.
Autocratic leadership style is one of the leadership styles in which the authoritarian leaders control different group members. Authoritarian leadership is important in those contexts where little wrong decision can create huge economic loss (Lechner and Gudmundsson, 2014). Therefore, if the cabin crew employee can do something wrong and show a negative behaviour with any passenger then the organization may face problems due to negative brand image. authoritarian leadership has different characteristics such as the leader do not take any kind of input from the group members, here leader make the decision and the group leader dictate all the method related to work. This kind of leadership highly de-motivated the employees.
McGregor theory X is based on the pessimistic approach of average kind of worker. This management style describe that the average employee have no ambition towards their work and they are generally individual goal oriented in any organization. In the style of theory X, managers have the perception that their employees have very little level of perception and they are very much lazy towards their work (Rainey, 2010). Theory X generally proves to be effective in the in case of the consistency of the work. The theory X generally profited those organizations that is suited towards the assembly line and this type of theory is used in the type of work condition that allow any employee for specializing in any particular area. Therefore, in order to motivate employee who follow theory X, Tarom airline should hire an effective leader.
Theory Y is completely opposite of the theory X, that describe that the people in the workforce are initially motivated and they enjoy their labour inn the organization. According to this theory, employees are considered the most effective asset of the organization. Theory Y states that the employee accept challenge in their organization effectively and implement their better effort on the organization (Lechner and Gudmundsson, 2014). Theory Y followed have better relationship with their boss and they maintain an effective communication in the organization. Tarom airline should provide training to those employees who follow theory Y so they can be more effective for their organisation.
According to Costa (2013), teamwork is the dynamic process that involves two ormore professionals with the contemporary skills and background shares common goals an exercising by providing mental and physical effort is assessing, planning and evaluating care for the customers. Therefore, teamwork is very important in the cabin crew organization to achieve success in their organization. However, best result from the teamwork can be achieved only if all of the members can share their thought and information with each other by implementing an effective environment of collaboration (Rezgui, 2010). Tarom airline can achieve several benefits from effective teamwork that are as follows:
The goals of the Tarom airline are:
As Tarom airline is one of the big organization so they hire diversified people in their organization. After hiring those people, they assign those people in any team so they can resolve any issues regarding customer service. This diverse people have diverse range of perception, attitude and behaviour so for this reason conflict may arise among them. As stated by (Boud and Middleton, 2012), conflict may destroy the effective performance in the team and threatens the positive work environment in the organization by corrupting the productivity of the worker (Boud and Middleton, 2012). Therefore, in order to resolve conflict, it is important to provide individual role to individual people, it will not be effective to assign one single role to more than one people. For resolving the team conflicts, Tarom airline implemented the Belbin’s role model. Along with that, effective leadership strategy needs to be followed to motivate employees so they can work with each other effectively. According to this model, division of the role can help the organization to reduce the conflict level.
Coordinator is the person that is involved in the achievement of the goals and objective of the team.
Plant is the person who have high level of IQ and they are generally involve in the team to provide specialized advice to the team members so team can achieve huge amount of success (Gilet al. 2015).
The main responsibility associated with the shaper is to shape the total tasks related to the customer services in the Tarom airline. Shaper generally applied different strategy to achieve organizational goal by applying effective level of energy in the work (Sveiby, 2011).
Investigator of the resource:
The main task associated with a resource investigator is exploring different opportunities and resources in front of the team so they can achieve more success.
Main responsibility of the implementer is to implement the overall process regarding the customer services so they can achieve the goal with the help of other member of team.
Main responsibility of the team worker is to provide effective service to the customer of their organization.
Evaluator and monitor:
Main responsibility of the evaluator and monitor is to monitor the overall process of customer service so strength and weaknesses of the employees can be evaluated and effective action can be taken to eliminate the weaknesses of the worker.
Finisher is that team member who finishes the overall tasks. However, in this case there is not any finisher because customer service is the continuous process.
This type of teammate is valuable to achieve effective performance in the team because they help other team member by providing different tips about how they can provide more effective customer services (Fleissig et al. 2011).
Main goal of the Tarom airline is increasing employee performance and sales performance of their organization. For improving this, they need to improve the performance of both their sales and marketing staff and cabin crew staff (Michie, 2012). They can improve the performance of their cabin crew staff that is directly involved in providing effective customer services; they need to provide an effective training to their employee. In order to provide an effective training they need to assess the strength and weaknesses of the employees first then they should develop their training program according to that. Moreover, team performance can be improved by applying effective leadership strategy. Tarom airline can increase the performance of their team by applying participative leadership style in their organization that involve their employee in the decision making process. Along with that, application of effective ethical code of practice is important among team members because it increases the morale among the member of a team. As stated by Cennamo and Gardner (2013), for the development of the team performance, it is important to motivate employees in highest extent. Tarom airline can motivate their employee by conducting different event, counselling, proper remuneration strategy and effective recognition. Tarom airline must conduct a human resource audit so they can understand what strategy or thing can motivate their employees in highest extent. On the other hand, in order to develop the performance of the marketing employees, they should hire a marketing consultant so they can understand the best strategy to advertise their service (Erdem and Ozen, 2013). Along with that, they should select the most effective promotional media so they can achieve the huge organizational sale. In order to promote their product they must consider the social media because it helps to attract huge number of customers.
For providing quality services to the customers, Tarom airline assess and monitor the performances of their employees regularly and according to the status of their performances, they set different action so they can fill the gap in their employee performance if there have any. In order to assess the performance of employee in the Tarom airline, they consider different factors by which they can assess or monitor the performances of their employees are as follows:
Success appraisal formula:
As stated by Fletcher (2011), success appraisal formula is one of the formal management system by which organization can evaluate the performances of their cabin crew employee. This formal management system is generally based on the evaluation of the quantity that lead to the quality of the information regarding the performance of different individuals in any organization. The main aim of this performance evaluation system is to evaluate the gap associated to the performance of every employee. This gap is mainly the shortfall that mainly occurs when the performance of any cabin crew does not meet the acceptable standard of the organization. Along with that, it also emphasizes the positive performances of any cabin crew employee inTarom airline. Success appraisal formula is one of the tools that generally provide a metrics to establish the pay for performance culture (Whiting et al. 2012). Therefore, after applying this formula, Tarom airline can get a high performing worker who is always aware of the target so they can achieve effective reward from their organization. Along with that, it also protects organization from any kind of legal action from the unhappy employees.
Surveying on the customers:
In order to assess the performance of employees surveying customers is very important because it helps the organization to understand the services that they have received from the cabin crew employees. This process helps Tarom airline to develop a productive and effective workforce.
In order to assess the employee performances, Tarom airline should conduct an appraisal interviews in order to understand the actual performance stratus of their employee (Levyand Williams, 2014). This can help the Tarom airline to understand the actual strength of their employees based on the job assigned to them. On the other hand, it also helps them to evaluate the weaknesses of employees so they can minimize it by providing effective training.
Setting a random method:
Tarom airline can utilize random methods to evaluate the performance of their employees.
The development needs of the Tarom airline can be delivered in this ways:
Setting an effective goal:
Before assessing the development need among the employees, it is important to set an aim by mentioning the expectation of the organization.
Establish a proper communication and proper support:
After setting the objective, it is important to communicate the goals with the employees along with their requirements (Poon, 2014). In this stage, it is important to communicate the required resources for achieving the best results.
Performance review of the employee:
After that, it is important to evaluate the performance of employees so it can be understood that how good the employees are to achieve those goals.
Documenting the performance of the employees:
After reviewing the performances of employees, it must be properly documented along with proper format (DeNisiet al. 2013). After taking this, it is important for the Tarom airline to take different feedback from the employees so organization can understand the objective and goals of the employees.
Providing training to the employees:
As opined by Roberts (2013), after the identification of the reasons for the development of employees, it is important for the employees to arrange some training program so they can minimize the loopholes in their performances.
Monitoring the development of the employee:
After arranging and providing training to the employee, it is important for them to continuously monitoring the employee performances so the up gradation and degradation in their performances can be identified. After identifying this, it is important for the organization to change the system of training for better results.
Any appraisal process should clearly demonstrate that how good their employees are to conduct their jobs effectively (Kuvaas, 2013). Therefore, any assessment process must clearly describe the weaknesses and strength of the employee. In order to achieve successful appraisal process, it is important to consider different aspects, which are performances in the job, productivity level in the organization, consequences of the assessment process as well as the development plan, tasks and activities of different individuals, Electra. Success of the assessment process can be identified from the documentation that any organization generally prepared during the performance evaluation process (Abrahamet al. 2011). Organization can easily evaluate the weaknesses and strength of their employee from that documentation so they can evaluate the need of development and plan accordingly to increase the performances of their cabin crew staff.
The above discussion can conclude that leadership is one of the crucial factors upon which organization must provide effective focus. In order to maintain sustainability every organization apply some change in their organization that can create conflict in the organization so it is very much important for any organization to hire effective leaders so they can helps the organization to implement change in the organization by motivating their employees. Effective leadership not only help any employee to provide their fullest possible effort to their organization but it also helps organization to achieve huge amount of profit by satisfying their objective.