**What is cryptography? Explain it with examples.**

Cryptography is explained as the learning of safe or protected communications techniques that permit only the sender and expected recipient of a message to view its contents. Cryptography is a science of securing information or data by transforming it into a secure and safe layout so that no any unauthorized person can read or access this data.

From the Greek word kryptos the term cryptography is acquired, which refers hidden or secret. If the message is caught or seized, a third party has key they require to decode or break and read the message.

Cryptography is related with the method of transforming or changing normal plain text into incomprehensible or meaningless cipher text and vice versa. It is a process of storing and transfer data in a special form so that only those can read and process data for whom it is intended. Claude E. Shannon is known as the father of mathematical cryptography. He worked for many years at Bell Labs, and between his time there, he make an article with a title name ‘A mathematical theory of cryptography.

**Cryptography example :-**

A fundamental example of cryptography is a encrypted message in which letters are changed with other characters. To decode the encrypted text, you would require a able that determines how the letters are interchanged.

Lets see an example - if we take a word ‘GOD’ and we have to converted it. We can convert it by adding next three letter. So the first letter of ‘GOD’, G is replaced by G+3 next letter that is J, second letter O will be replaced by R and the last third letter will be replaced by G. SO the word GOD will be converted to JRG. We can get it’s original form by subtracting three letter back.

**Cryptography in Internet security :**

Encryption assists save your online *confidentiality* by making personal information into for your eyes only messages expected only for the needed parties and no any other unauthorized person. You should make confirm that your emails or data are being sent over an encrypted channel and you are encrypting each message.

In simple words we can say that encryption is a process or technique of converting an actual (real) data into another form so that no any unauthorized person can read this data. The real data is known as plain text and the converted data is known as cipher text. This cipher text or data can be read only by authorized person. The authorized person contains the key, with the help of this key he decodes the cipher text again in real data or plain text and read it. The process of converting a real message into another form with the help of replacing letters is called encryption and converting it again in real text is called decryption. So encryption is a process of converting plain text into cipher text and decryption is just opposite of encryption (changing cipher text into plain or real text).

**Uses of Cryptography :**

Cryptography is used for protected communication in the existence of mischievous third-parties**—**known as attackers or opponents. Encryption uses an algorithm or technique and a key to convert a real text or input (i.e., plain text) into an another form or encrypted output (i.e., cipher text).

**Use of cryptography in everyday life :**

Cryptography in everyday life consists of a wide range of circumstances where the use of cryptography provides the solution of a secure service. These are :

- Authentication/Digital Signatures - Authentication and digital signatures are main applications of public-key cryptography.
- Time Stamping.
- Electronic Money - cash withdrawal from an ATM
- Secure network communications and secure web browsing
- Pay TV, freeware
- Anonymous Remailers.
- Use of a GSM mobile phone.
- Disk Encryption.

**Types of cryptography (**Encryption Algorithms) **:**

Cryptography is mainly divided into three types :

- Secret Key Cryptography or Symmetric key Cryptography - This technique uses same key for encryption and decryption. Means sender and receiver uses the same single key to both encrypt and decrypt the data.
- Public Key Cryptography or Asymmetric key Cryptography - This technique uses two keys, one for encryption and one for decryption. Means sender and receiver uses the different key to encrypt and decrypt the data.
- Hash Functions - Hash function is an algorithm, used to convert random or unpredictable length of data into a fixed length. Means it takes an inconsistent or unpredictable amount of data as an input and produces a consistent or fixed size output.

**Applications of Cryptography**

- Secure communications - The most important use of cryptography that is used by all of us frequently, is encoding data between us and another system.
- Offers end-to-end Encryption.
- Storing or saving data.
- Storing or saving passwords.
- Cryptography is powerful.

**Features of cryptography :**

Some main features of cryptography are as follows:

- Simply, cryptography keeps data secure and safe and prevents unauthorized access of information.
- Integrity
- Confidentiality
- Authentication
- Non-repudiation

**The advantages of cryptography :**

- Confidentiality − Information or data can only be accessed only by the authorized person for whom it is intended and no other unauthorized person can access it.
- Authentication − Cryptography provides many techniques such as MAC and digital signatures. These can protect information against data prank and fraudulence.

**Drawbacks of cryptography :**

- A highly encrypted and digitally signed information can be hard to access even for a authorized user at a critical time of decision-making.
- Through the use of cryptography, one of the basic aspects of information security cannot be ensured.

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