Standard ML Homework Help


What is Standard ML? Explain it.

SML refers to Standard Meta Language . It is a general purpose, standard and effective programming language which supports compile-time type checking and type inference. It is designed by Robin Milner and others at the University (mainly jointly by Bell Laboratories and Princeton University) of Edinburgh in 1973It is an Inferred, static, and strong language.

Standard ML is a high order of imperative language, it is not a good functional language.

Standard Meta Language (SML) is a safe type programming language that binds many creative concepts in programming language pattern or design. It is a constant (fixed) and controlled language, which supports an expandable type framework. It allows polymorphic or assorted type inference, which reduces the overload of special types of variables and extremely motivates the feature of code reuse ability. It offers a beneficial productive programmed ability for functions and data structures. It is also a particular functional programming language with capability of compile type checking and type inference. 

Standard Meta Language does not support object oriented programming directly. Means it is not a pure object oriented programming. It uses some additional features that display how to use defined object oriented concepts in SML.


Syntax of Standard ML : 

Syntax in Standard ML are very appropriate.

-5+6*7 = (+5(*6 7))

ML supports type declarative and it uses type inference. Such as if A and B are integer then A+B will be also integer.


Uses of Standard ML :

Standard ML is utilized like a tool in analysis on theorem justifying, compiler technology and program exploration. As an instance, the HOL theorem is written in Standard ML, proved by Cambridge University .

The Cambridge University still now utilizes Standard ML for its basic computer science course.

Standard ML is until now used in reality to teach basic programming, or fundamental courses that analyze and examine programming paradigms. This is a confirmation to express simplicity and power of expression of Standard ML . 


Fundamental Elements of Standard ML :-

Some basic elements of Standard ML are as following :

  • Variables :- The variables can be determined by the val keyword. The value of variables may be changed as your requirement.
  • Expression :- An expression is described by the operands and operators. 
  • Print command :- The print command is used to print the result or output in SML. 
  • Conditional Statements:- The condition can be executed using if-else statement. It may be explained as :

If the specified condition or boolean expression evaluates to true, then the if block code (if statement) will be executed, otherwise, the else block code (else statement) will be executed.


Features of Standard ML :

Main features of Standard ML are listed as follows :

  • Functions - Same as all functional programming languages, function is the main feature of Standard ML, which is used for data abstraction.
  • It provides higher order of functions such as Lambda functions. .
  • It provides Pattern matching. 
  • It supports the use of declarative definitions, imperative definitions and local definitions.
  • It uses algebraic data types.
  • It is strongly typed language : - Type of each and every name and expression can be initiated at compile time.
  • It supports exception handling : - Means it is able to catch or handle run time errors or anomalous such as IOException, ClassNotFoundException, RemoteException, and SQLException etc.

Advantages of Standard ML :


Main advantages of Standard ML are listed as follows :

  • It provides a high-level of design pattern or standard : - The layout of Standard ML allows programming to be used more efficiently and more reliable with the automation and elimination of many low level information such as data creation and data control.
  • Advanced module system of Standard ML permits programs to be break down into hierarchically standardized design or structures of logically or analytical related type and value definitions. Modules support not only control of namespace but also provide abstraction, this means that they permit the definition of abstract data types. Abstraction refers hiding the unnecessary information means it represents only important information rather than background information. It hides the background r unnecessary details.

Disadvantages of Standard ML :


Some disadvantages of Standard ML are listed as follows :

  • Run time errors are harder to identify and resolve : It's harder to identify many errors with one executionof a program. In other words we can say that run-time type errors may not be captured or detected until the program is executed on several inputs. In short; run-time bugs can be difficult and inflexible to detect or discover.
  • ML requires compile-time type checking : - This expresses that type tags require not be transferred around at run time, and operators do not need to check the types of their arguments at run time.
  • Not supports good flexibility or lack of flexibility :- As we studied earlier Standard ML is a static type language, ML does not support the dynamic type method so it is not provided better flexibility.

      It seems a big disadvantage for those developers who feel dynamic type programming is more efficient and better than static type programming language and want dynamic type programming.

  • Less user bandwidth than other languages : It means that Standard ML does not has a good user scale and it is not too much popular among users due to its static type property. It can’t become the first choice of programmers.


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