# Digital System Homework Help

A digital system is a program that handles discrete signals. The input, as well as output of the program, is actually 2 binary value that is 0 and 1. Types of digital systems tend to be cell phones, radio, megaphones, and much more.

Digital System Design is the digital circuit design used in the Electronics industry especially in the VLSI field. It is the implementation of IC chips over several transistors.

Digitization is now implemented in an array of programs, such as info (computers), telecoms, control systems, and so on. Digital circuits substitute numerous analog systems.

Advantages of digital system design are as follows:

• It is cheaper and easier to design.
• Easier to store, transfer as well as change info.
• Devices become smaller and faster.

Digital system design is actually the procedure for creating or even developing systems that signify information utilizing a binary system

It's easier to store, reproduce, transmit & manipulate digital data & cheaper/easier to design such systems.

Microcontrollers, Microprocessors, Memory chips, FPGA are examples of digital design. Systems like for example a PC can be built using these components and that forms a digital system or platform.

The fundamental concepts of digital circuits and systems:

Digital circuit is one of the core subjects in ECE/CSE and has a wide range of concepts on the basis of which synthesized digital models are created. Before moving on to learn any hardware coding language, learning the concepts of digital electronics is of utmost importance.

I will divide the answer into four phases.

First phase: The widely used concepts are:-

1] Number System:-

There are mainly four types of the number system in digital circuits through which calculations are performed which are Binary, Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal.

It's necessary to learn the number system conversion. Apart from that concepts like Weighted Code, Non-Weighted Code, XS-3 code,1’s complement,2’s complement operation, 9’s and 10 complements, Gray Codes are equally important to learn.

2] Logic Gates:-

The primary logic gates are OR, AND, NOT, XOR XNOR, NAND, and NOR.

The most important concept here is to learn is the Truth Table of each gate and their working along with waveforms. Some other concepts regarding Universal gates(Nand, Nor) and how to form the basic gates using only Nand and Nor are also needed.

Second Phase:-

3] Combinational Circuits:-

Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Encoder, Decoder, Half Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtracter, Full Subtracter, Binary Multiplier, Priority Encoder, Ripple carry adder, LAC adder is all examples of combinational circuits.

Among them, the multiplexer is the most basic combinational circuit.

It's necessary to be thorough with the circuits, truth table, working principle, and their interconnection with the other circuits and logic gates of all the combinational circuits mentioned above.

Third phase:-

Sequential Circuits:-

This is the most critical part of Digital circuits and one should clearly understand the concepts of Flip Flop, Counter, Shift Register, and Finite State machine(FSM).

Apart from that some other concepts like Karnaugh map, Hazards, Stuck at fault0 and stuck at fault1, optimization of digital circuit, conversion of one flip flop to another frequency divider circuits, MOD counter are also important.

And now the last phase.

Although it's not mandatory but will be really advantageous if someone also learns the following concept:-

• Static Timing Analysis.
• Mealy/Moore Machine
• Clock Skew/Slack/Slew Concepts

How many types of circuits are in a digital system?

The first is the Inverter or NOT gate. This gate reads its input line and produces the complementary state on its output line…so if the input is low the output will be high and vice versa. These have two logic pins per gate, so an IC with inverters on it will have quite a few….a 14-pin package will feature six inverters.

Then is the AND gate. It will drive the output line high if all the input lines are high.

Next is the OR gate, which drives the output line high if any of the input lines are high.

You will read of NAND and NOR gates. These are an AND or OR gate with the following inverter, and drive their output lines low if the necessary condition is found at the input lines. They’re nice if your circuit calls for an inverter after the gate because it lets you get away with only buying one IC.

AND and OR gates can have more than two input lines.

There are tons of chips for sale that use multiple gates to do one thing. A fun one is the Exclusive OR. Its output line goes high if exactly one input line is high; if all of them are low or if more than one input line is high, the output line will be below. However, that gate is made of several OR gates.

The major advantage of a digital system is that it can represent information in a very concise way. This allows for efficient storage and transmission of data. Additionally, digital systems are very reliable and can be easily controlled.

Digital system design:

Digital system design is the process of designing or developing systems that represent information using a binary system. It's easier to store, reproduce, transmit & manipulate digital data & cheaper/easier to design such systems.

Microcontrollers, Microprocessors, Memory chips, FPGA are examples of digital design. Systems like for example a PC can be built using these components and that forms a digital system or platform.

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